-Minister of Finance 1881-7
-Attempted to control expenditure to create financial stability and attract foreign capital
-His policies failed to avoid defecits.
-Minister of Finance 1887-1892
-Attempted to raise taxation in order to create financial stability and attract foreign capital.
-After a series of upward revisions of tariffs, he raised import duties to 33% in 1891.
-The Russian budget achieved a surplus in 1892 and the first of a series of French loans was secured, 1888.
-"We must go hungry, but export"
-Grain exports were increased by 18% as a % of total exports 1881-1891 - this resulted in the great famine of 1891-2.
-Minister of Finance 1892-1903
-Secured a second major loan from the French, 1893.
-Invested greatly in the Trans-Siberian Railway
-"Save Russia through rapid and forceful industrialisation"
-1897, introduced decrees to limit work hours to 11.5 a day (10 at night) and to permit trade unions.
-1897, put Russia on the Gold Standard.