Russia and its rulers: Lenin

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Lenin Ruler and Nature of Government

Establishing the Dictatorship: SOVNARKOM: October 1917 the Bolsheviks replace the provisional government but only really had control of Petrograd, and as 4/5th of Russians were peasants so only controlled the political areas. They were backed by the 2nd Congress of soviets (worers unions). Made the Soviet of Peoples Commissars (SOCNARKOM).

War: Lenin immediately signs Armistice and Dukhovin did not want to sings so was murdered by troops.

Cheka: the new secrete police, arrested anarchists and left SRs. In 1918 they had 120 members, but grew to 150,000 in 1921. The committed 50,000 executions in 1918.

Constituent Assembly: elections held in November 1917, mostly made up of peasants. Voting resutls: SRs= 40% (as popular amoung pesants) Bols 23%. The Consstituent assemble met 5/1/18 headed by the SR Chernov. Closed down by Lenin (who still had control under SOVNARKOM) who called it "Bourgeoise democracy". Replaced by new state RSFSR.

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Lenin Ruler and Nature of Government NO2

Decrees October 1917 to July 1918: Lenin passed decrees on: Peace (to be negotiated), land (to be redistributed), nationalities (to be self determined), housing (to be redistributed in cities), marriage and divorce (made easier), Church (keep out of education), Others (comrade, some nationalists of industry, protection of mother and child). Some political party's band, press censorship and increased control over soviets.

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk March 1918: Lenin threatened to resign unless they agreed to sign, Russia lost 1/3 of land under treaty, but most was gaind back when war was over.

Civel war: "military discipline" introduced, people started denonciation people to the Checka. War Communism, then the NEP "let the peasants have there little bit of capitalism so long as we keep the power.

Kronstadt Mutiny 1921: Executions of 10,000 and sent to concentration camps.

Decree on Party Unity: March 1918, happened at the 10th party congress. Put a ban on factions and other political party's.

Illness and Decline: Stroke in may 1922 (and two after) followed assassination attempts. withdrew from public until 1924 death, leaving a power vacuum.

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Lenin Economy and Society

State Capitalism 1917: Aims: Lenin- Russia not ready for communist industrial policies and believed that communist world would spread across europe. Vesenkya set up to run nationalisation- supreme Council of National Economy. Banks, shipping and larger factories nationalised.

Outcome: affter the revolution workers belived that they would be in control so wanted more, they siesd factorys. Lenin issued decrees in Jan and April 1918 which band this. The Civel war was leading to starvation (50g of bread perday in citys) which lead to a grate migration to the country side. Stat capitalisum abandond 1918

War Communism 1918: Aims: needed to meet the demands of the civil war economy. Party officials sent in to run factories instead of soviets to make sure they were working for war effort. Peasant grain surplus to be requisitioned to feed city people.

Out come: City population halved (2.6 million workers 1917 to 1.9 by 1920). Allied Blockade of goods to Russia. Industrial production fell to 31% of 1913 level. Peasants resisted requisitioning= agricultural production fell to 61% of 1913 level. Requisition squads took seed as well as grain= Peasant uprising "the Greens" 1921. Drought, famine and disease hit and left 5 million dead and inflation at 1 million %.

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Lenin Economy and Society NO 2

New Economic Policy 1921:

Aims: Put forward at the 10th party congress called "Strategic Retreat". They needed to build Smychka (alliance). Put an end to Requisitioning, 10% tax in kind, free market, could sell surplus grain and small businesses made legal. "commanding heights" still under state control: Industry, banking and railways.

Outcome: End to the armed resistance of the greens. lead to better harvest 1922-3. New currency introduced to stop inflation. Workers and farmers went back to work.

"let the peasants have there little bit of capitalism, so long as we keep the power" Lenin

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Lenin War and Revolution

Ending World War One: Decree of Peace: Lenin promist "bread, Land and peace". Passed almost immediately on gaining power. Lenin called for a "peace with out annexations and indemnities" =no loss of land and reparations. Germans encoraged Lenin to take over Petregrad so he would stop war second frount. Armistice: Signed 2nd December 1917 Lenin said the war must end at any cost and the germans knew he felt that way germand asked for exstreemly harsh turms. Trotsky called for "on peace, no war" by dragging out negotiations, Germans found out and resumed fighting and bombed moscow. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk: Mach 1918 Russia lost 1/3 of teritory, 1/2 industry including "bread basket" of Russia Ukraine. Used Checka to supress oppostion.

Civil War Causes: Nationalism: Nov 1917 Decree on Nationalities allowed them to leave to leave Russia and lead to there being 33 soverign governments by june 1918. Politics: Disaffected leftists (mensheviks, SRs, Socialists removed by Bols). Tsarists but all had little incommen. Allies: Did not want war on one frountn so wanted Russa to rejoin war. so France sent 7 million Francs to Cossacks. Greens: peasants and anarchists over requisitoning, from 1921

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Lenin War and Revolution NO 2

Civil War Events: Early resistance: Kerensky, Leader of Provishanl gov tried to rally aginst Bols Nov 1917. Cossacks who were loyal to the Tsar in Spring 1918. Kornilov's Volunteer Army April 1918. All were easily defeated. War with S.Rs: Summer 1918 massed around Czech Legion with the establishment of the "Directory" Govt replaced by Admiral Kolchak who appointed himself "military dictator". Tsar Nicolas and family executed July 1918. War with the Whites: Kolchak and Denikin fight series of battles with Red Army 1919-20. The Red army then became more powerful and chased Whites out of Russia. Greens: 1920-1 the Makhno uprising, some were defeated by the Red army but most were wone over by the NEP.

Civil War Reasons:

Red Victory: improvements with 5 million members by 1920, had control of the cities, which meant they had control of factories who could produce ammunition and man power. They used the Red Terror (Cheka) where 1 in 10 men were shot to scare others in to behaving. They also had control of Railways. 

White Defeat: Had no common cause. The Allies tried to help but distracted by WW1 and were portrayed as foreign puppets.

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