- Belief that the world is orderly and intelligible and that evidence and experiment are the means to acquire knowledge.
- Desires to challenge and evaluate all claims to truth.
- Observation - Observing and gathering data on something in nature.
- Hypothesis - Making an educated guess to explain the gathered data.
- Experiment - Testing the hypothesis in controlled conditions. Confirm or falsify.
- Verification - Repeat. The more times the more accurate.
This is based on inductive reasoning and is not complete proof.
Scientific Method - Strengths
- Bertrand Russel on scientist - 'his beliefs are tentative; they are not dogmatic; they are based on evidence, not on authority or intuition.
- Inductive Reasoning - although it cannot prove, it can be made highly likely.
- Popper's falsification - can be constantly updated through time.
- Objective - "truth is scientific truth" - Dawkins.
- Meaning - God revealing himself and his meaning to earth.
- Natural - Learning about God throgh his own creation. Eg. size of earth shows his power.
- Special - God revealing himself to a specific person/people at a specific time.
- Decisive - Jesus is the decisive revelation as he is God's human form.
- Fundamentalism, creationism
- Bible is infallible - claims to truth. It's word is absolute and cannot be challenged.
- Genesis 1 - earth created in 6 24 hour periods. John Ussher says the earth is 6000 years old.
Origin of Human Life - Scripture
- Man and woman created at the same time - 1 v 27, "man was created in God's image".
- Pinnacle of God's creation - stewardship 1 v 31, "very good".
- Man was created first and he named the creatures.
- Woman was created from man's rib.
Evidence Supporting Evolution
- DNA/Genetics - Our DNA can be monitored to be shown it has changed/evolved over time.
- Geology - Layers of strata can show how long the earth dates back.
- Fossils - Fossils can show that humans weren't around the same time as dinosaurs therefore humans have evolved.
- Natural selection in action - Darwin's finches and their different beaks.
- Similarities with animals - eg. tailbone.
Christian Responses to Objection by Evolution
- Catechism of catholic church - Led to greater admiration of creator, supported by the fact that he's created a longer universe.
- St. Augustine - The bible is not meant to be read literally.
- Wittgenstein - Language games. Migliore said science suggests how and belief suggests why.
- Anthropic priciple - Evolution can only take place in a habitable universe.
- Tennent - Man possesses aesthetic awareness.
- Temple - If we all followed survival of the fittest, there would be no morality.
- Evolution is God's mechanism (this challenges an all powerful/loving God.)
- Evolution is only a theory - it cannot be proved despite it being likely
- John Polkinghorne - God and providence. "flexibility of the process".
Paley's Design Argument/Teleo
- Analogy - Paley compares a pocket watch to complex and purposeful mechanisms in nature. Because the pocket watch is designed and purposeful, so too are the natural mechanisms.
- Comparison - The watch is complex and purposeful. It is a product of intellignet design. Nature has complex and purposeful mechanisms. Therefore they also have an intelligent designer.
- Proportionality - Natural mechanisms are much more complicated than man-made mechanisms. Therefore designer of the natural mechanisms is much more powerful and intelligent than that of the watch. This designer is God.
- Chance - Unlikely for complex and purposeful mechanisms to come about by chance. Even more unlikely for a more complex, natural mechanism to come about by chance
- Regularity - Swinburne suggests that regularity points to order, and therefore a designer.
- Hume - Universe could've come about by chance. In infinite time, particle matter could've randomly created a functioning universe.
- Evolution - Paley wrote before Darwin. Evolution provides a much more compelling alternative than species being created to suit their environment.
- Evolution variation - Evolution explains why species seem so expertly adapted to their environment
- Steve Jones - There is no purpose to life, evolution is completely natural explanation.
Evidence Supporting BBT - unfinished
Edwin Hubble - redshift shows that stars are moving away from us which shows that the universe is expanding. Universe expanded from the Big Bang.
Background Radiation - we can still detect radiation that supports an explosion of that size eg. static in TVs.