Rise of the Nazis

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Timeline

  • Hitler joins Nazi party - 1919
  • Hitler becomes leader of Nazis - 1920
  • SA (Storm Troopers) formed - 1921
  • Munich Putsch - 1923
  • Hitler writes "Mein Kamph" - 1924
  • Hitler Youth formed - 1927
  • Josef Goebbels put in charge of propaganda - 1928
  • Nazis have only 12 seats in the Reichstag - 1928
  • Great Depression - 1929
  • Nazis largest party in the Reichstag - 1932
  • Hitler becomes chancellor - 1933
  • Hitler becomes Fuhrer (leader) - 1934
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Nazi views in the 1920's

Nationalism:

  • Removing Treaty of Versailles
  • Believed Germans were master race
  • Strong Germany with strong industries and leader

Socialism:

  • Work and good living for every German
  • Increase old age pensions
  • Educate gifted children
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Was the Munich Putsch a success?

Sucess:

  • Hitler's trial was a propaganda success, he had a large audience to tell his views
  • Sent to a comfortable prison where he only served 9 months of his 5 year sentence
  • Wrote "Mein Kamph" to organise his ideas and aims
  • Decided to change tactics from violence to gaining votes peacefully

Failure:

  • 11 Nazis killed
  • Hitler sent to prison
  • Nazi party banned
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How the Nazis tried to get on TOP 1924 - 29

Tactics -

  • Hitler decided that voting and not violence would win him power
  • Stopped trying to appeal to the working classes
  • Instead tried to gain support from those who hadn't done well during the 1920's, farmers and small businesses.

Organisation -

  • Hitler Youth was created which aimed to get young people to believe the ideas of the Nazis
  • Reorganised into districts and branches which made it easier to run.

Propaganda -

  • Josef Goebbels put in charge, made sure that propaganda was focused on issues people thought important.
  • Public meetings organised
  • Evening classes to train in public speaking
  • Mein Kamph a bestseller
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Why had the Nazis failed to get into power by 1928

1) They lacked the support of the working class, most who wanted change voted for the communist party who offered fair society, some also voted for the social democrats.

2) 1924-28 was a time of peace and prosperity, Stresemann had made Germany a better place to live and people didn't need to vote for an extremist party because life had been made better in the years before the depression hit.

3) Nazi ideas were too extreme. People were put off by Hitler's anti-semitism (against Jews) and his want to invade other countries.

4) The SA were violent and caused the Nazis to be seen as little more than thugs in the people's eyes. People didn't want conflict after the first world war.

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Groups Hitler appealed to in the 1930's

The Nazis had 12 seats in 1928 and this rose to 288 in March 1933.

1) Workers - He decided to appeal to workers again after his decision not to after he came out of prison. Nazis offered "Work, Bread and Freedom."

2) Middle Classes - Were scared of communism and Hitler promised to defeat it.

3) Women - Promised to make family important and give women an important and vital place in society.

4) Nationalists - He promised to destroy the Treaty and make Germany strong again. He condemned Jews and the "November Criminals."

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How did Hitler become chancellor in 1933?

1) The Depression - People were starving, unemployed and banks had collapsed. The Nazis offered an extreme solution to extreme problems after chaotic years for Germany.

2) Disillusion with Weimar - Coalition governments argued and never lasted more than two years, which made democratic politicians look weak and the Nazis offered one strong government wth one strong leader.

3) Fear of communism - Businessmen and Farmers feared communism and the communsists grew stronger and more violent. The Nazis appeared well-organised and disciplined and the middle classes supported them because they seemed the only party able to deal with the communists.

4) Nazi election plans - Simple messages and big rallies made the Nazis look organised and appealed to those who wanted a strong leader.

5) Dispute between Von Papen and Hindenburg - Hitler and Von Papen made an alliance to overthrow Von Schleicher who wanted to be made chancellor. Hindenburg reluctantly made Hitler chancellor and Von Papen vice chancellor. They both thought they could control Hitler. Only 3 out of 12 in the government are Nazis.

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How Hitler became Fuhrer (CREEPSHA)

Chancellor - 30th January 1933 Hitler becomes chancellor and has power to make laws with the support of the Reichstag.

Reichstag fire - 27th February 1933 a Dutch communist is found in the burning Reichstag building and this allows Hitler to call an election to deal with the threat of communism, "supervised" by the SA.

Elections - 5th March 1933 some people are intimidated into voting for the Nazis by they still only won 44% of the vote - Hitler did not have full control of Germany.

Enabling Act - 24th March 1933 gave Hitler absolute power to make any law without consulting the Reichstag.

Parties banned -14th July 1933 the Nazis were the only party allowed in Germany, it was no longer a democracy. Hitler could not be removed by an election.

SA leaders killed - 30th June 1934 Hitler had complete control of his party.

Hindenburg dies - 2nd August 1934 Hitler combines the role of President and Chancellor and becomes Fuhrer.

Army Oath - Aug 1934 The army swear complete loyalty to Hitler.

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Night of the Long Knives

Cause: The Leader of the SA Ernst Rohm wanted ti take over the army against its wishes. Hitler thought the SA were getting too powerful.

Events: 400 SA leaders arrested by SS and army, they were then executed for planning a "plot."

Result: Hitler had complete control over his own party and the army supported him.

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