- Created by: Charlottefwilliams
- Created on: 15-10-18 09:11
When we dont have the neccessary cues to access a memory.
A trigger of information.
- may be meaningful or indirectly linked to the time of learning
- can be external or internal
Encoding Specifity Principle- CUES
TULVING- discovered a pattern
- cue must be present at encoding and retrieval
- if the cues a different (at encoding or retrieval)- forgetting
- cues can be linked to the material in a meaningful way.
GODDEN and BADDELEY
Procedure- the divers learned a list of words
The Four Conditions:
- learn on land, recall on land
- learn on land, recall underwater
- learn underwater, recall underwater
- learn underwater, recall on land
- If the environment matched- recall was better
- 40% less accurate recall for non-matching
- the external cues were different at encoding and recall- retrieval failure
State Dependent Forgetting
CARTER and CASSADAY
Procedure- learn word lists while...
- ppts took anti-histamines, made them slightly drowsey
- creates a unique internal state, different from normal state of alertness
The Four Conditions-
- learn on drug/off drug, recall on drug
- learn on drug/off drug, recall off drug
- Matched conditons- better recall
- worse recall where internal state was a mismatch- absence of cues meant forgetting