Responses to Climate Change- Introduction
Most World leaders agree climate change is a threat, and that needs to be done about it. It seems certain that responsibility for action will lie mainly with HIC's as these nations have been, and still are, major global polluters.
There are two types of response to climate change:
Plan to reduce the damaging effects of warming- Building sea defences, Improve water catchment and supply in areas likely to become drier, develop 'drought-proof' strains of plants.
Try to slow down global warming by controlling greenhouse gases- Reduce our dependence on fossil fuels and use more renewable types of energy, afforestation, conserve energy.
Global Responses to Climate Change- Earth Summit
-Held at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
-Fossil fuel alternatives
Rio Declaration - sustainable development
Climate Change Convention- stabilise greenhouse gas emissions
Global Responses to Climate Change- Kyoto Conferen
-Held at Kyoto, Japan
Main Discussions -Climate changes-wanted to establish legally binding international agreement to tackle global warming and greenhouse gas emissions
-Kyoto Protocol- International treaty to stabilise emmisions by 5.2% globally compared to 1990 and 2012.
Countries agreed on national emissions limits (EU 8% decrease, USA 7% decrease, Japan 6% decrease, China 0%, Iceland 10% increase)
Countries can trade emissions (high polluting countries can buy credits from other countries and gain credits from activities which boost carbon absorption.)
Signed to come into force in 2005. 191 countries signed by 2011. Aimed to be reviewed in 2012, no one met their targets, and the date is to be extended to 2020. Richer nations can pay poorer nations for their failures.
Global Responses to Climate Change- Bali
-Held in Bali, Indonesia
-Discussions on the implentation of the Climate Change Convention and Kyoto Protocol.
-Bali Road Map - a set of decisions representing the various pathways to reaching global climate deal. The pathways were:
Deforestation and Forest Management
Use of cleaner technology in LIC's
Emission reduction (40% reduction by 2020)
Global Responses to Climate Change- Cancun
-Held at Cancun, Mexico
-Protecting LIC's from climate change impacts
-Cancun agreement- Keep global temperatures rise below 2 degree. Provide funds to enable LIC's to take action against climate change and protect the World's forests.
Global Responses to Climate Change- Durban
-Held at Durban, South Africa
-Discussion on implementation of the Climate Change Convention, Kyoto Protocol and Bali Road Map
-Post 2020 agreement- legally enforcable agreement that will come into force in 2020 for all countries to control greenhouse gas emissions (not just those that sign)
Global Responses to Climate Change- Doha
-Held at Doha, Qatar
-Ammending the Kyoto Protocol.
-Doha Amendment- Some countries to aim to stabilise greenhouse gas emissions to 18% below 1990 levels by 2020.
Global Responses to Climate Change- General Info
-These conferences are held anually by governments in different locations.
-They are funded by the EU
National Responses to Climate Change- NGO's 1
-NGO- 'Non-Governmental Organisation'
-Example: Greenpeace ☮
Key Idea: They want energy to be produced and used in a more sustainable way
1) Focus 1:
-More energy effecient power stations, to convert wasted heat into power.
-Use renewable energy sources
2) Focus 2:
-Low carbon cars/electric cars
-More effecient and accessible public transport
-No further airports to be built
-Raise taxes on flights
National Responses to Climate Change- NGO's 2
(Focuses of Greenpeace continued)
3) Focus 3:
-Reduce emissions (since 2005)
-Buy Carbon Credits
Local (UK) Responses to Climate Change- 'Live Simp
This was a campaign run by the Catholic Church in 2007. It encouraged local school children to consider the choices they made and the imapct this had on our world. Schools introduced energy effecient water and heating systems which ran from wind turbines and solar panels.
It also encouraged people to:
-'Green' Church buildings
-Have fair trade products
It now runs as an award for Catholic parishes. To enter, parishes have to "encourage the whole community to live simply; sustainably with creation; and in solidarity with those in poverty"
Local (UK) Responses to Climate Change- 'MIMP'
'Manchester is my Planet'
This is a campaign encourgaing individuals to make a pledge aimed at reducing their carbon footprint. Manchester council in partnership with NPC car parks introduced the 'Green Badge Parking Permit'. Owners of cars which produce low carbon emissions can apply for the badge which gives them a 25% parking discount.
They aim to connects individuals and organisations to tackle climate change.
They offer advice to reduce your carbon footprint and emissions, and free aid such as cycle training. Advice is given on journey planning, alternative fuels and car purchasing.
There are also workshops to connect the communtiy, such as 'PlanLoCaL'