Religious Studies: Roman Catholic Christianity

Containst4 Sections:

-Believinrg in God

-Matters of life and death

-Marrriage and Family

-Religion and Community Cohesion

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  • Created by: Abdulla
  • Created on: 10-05-13 18:52

Section1 Believing in God - Keywords

Numinous  - The feeling of the presence of something greater than you

Free will - The idea that human beings are free to make their own choices

Conversion - When your life is changed by giving youself to God

Miracle - Something which seems to break the laws of science and makes you think only god done it

Prayer- An attempt to contact god, usually with words

Omnipotent- the belief that God is all Powerfull

Omniscient - the belief that God Knows everything that has happened and everything that will happen

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Keywords Part II

Omnibenevolent- the belief that God is good

Agnosticism- not being sure whether God exists

Atheism - Believing that God does not exist

Natural evil - things which cause suffering but have nothing to do with humans

Moral evil - actions done by humans which cause suffering

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Catholic Upringing

Catholic Upbringing

How may a Catholic Upringinng Lead to the belief in God?

- Having a child baptised gives them access to all other sacraments

- Taking them to Church regularly; sunday school gives them a deeper understanding of the faith and god.

- Sending Children/their child to a catholic school allows them to be influenced by children of their age to believe in god

-Carrying on their sacraments e.g. communion, confirmation consolidates their faith to the church showing that their belief in god is stronger.

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Religious Experience

How can a Religious Experience Lead to the belief of God?

Examples of this are:

Numinous: The Complexity of the world, the bright stars in the sky, the position of the sun etc.

Miracles: When sick people visit lourdes and they get better, when an ill person suddenly gets better

Conversion: St. Paul's Conversion from Judaism to Christianity on the way to damascus, getting involved in charities, becoming a priest/nun.

Prayer: Praying to do well in exams then getting good results, praying for a loved one to get better and they do

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Design Arguement

1. There is evidence of design in the world e.g the position of the sun, the way humans are made

2. It there is evidence of design then someone must have designed it; humans did not know many things initially otherwise there wouldn't be any scientists doing research and studies.

3. Only something greater designed the world so there must be a designer as humans do not know exactly how the universe was created.

4. The only possible designer is God therefore God Does Exist

Paley's Watch

William Paley created a theory which compared the Complexity of the Universe to a Watch; A watch has a complex mechanism which works together perfectly which means there must be a designer for this watch as it is too complicated to have just appeared. Like a watch, the universe must have a designer as it is too complicated to have just appeared

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Causation Arguement

Causation Arguement - the belief that something happens for a reason/cause

1. Science argues that anything that exists must have a cause e.g the world has a cause; to support life

2. Anything caused to exist must be caused by something  else e.g. humans made from the big bang which is caused by something else

3. Any causation chain has a beginning called the first cause; the world has a first cause; the big bang must have a first cause

4. The only possible 1st cause for the universe/world is God, Therefore..... God exists

GOD---->BIG BANG------>THE WORLD-------> LIFE BEGINS

God is the 'unmoved mover' meaning he is constant and will ALWAYS be there.

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Scientific Explanations

Why may Scientific explanations of the origins of the world, lead people not to believe in God?

1. Science argues that the Big Bang Created the World, NOT GOD

2. The Big Bang theory offers a better, reasonable explanation than the 6 days of creation (Genesis)

3. Charles Darwin created the theory of Evolution which is widely accepted by the scientists all over the world, so God is not needed.

4. If someone believes in these theories and ideas, then this may lead them not to believe in God.

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Christians response to Science

'LITERALISTS'/EVANGELICAL CHRISTIANS

- Does not mention the big bang in the bible

- The bible is the word of god so it is completley true

-It is impossible for a scientific account of the origins of the universe to be true

CATHOLIC CHRISTIANS

-Christians accept the big bang as they say God created the big bang as well as the fact that the big bang teaches the creation story out of nothing similar to the bible

LIBERAL CHRISTIANS

- Both the bible and science are correct

- The bible's message is not literal but it is symbolic ; The creation story was designed to teach us about how god wanted us to look after the world.

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Reasons NOT to believe is God

1. Existence of God - Creation of the universe revolves around the big bang theory as well as evolution for the formation of humans ; charles darwin wrote a book explaining and supporting these ideas. THERE IS SIMPLY NO PROOF OF GOD'S EXISTENCE and a belief in EVOLUTION and the BIG BANG THEORY.

2. Evil and Suffering -  Natural and Moral Evils constantly happen all over the world; if God was omnipotent, he would have power to stop and prevent suffering, if he was omniscincent, he would know all that occurs (past, present and future) so he could stop the suffering, if he was omnibenevolent he would stop suffering as he loves us.

3. Miracles- if god was omnibenevolent/omnipotent then he would give everyone miracles, not just some people.

4. Unanswered Prayers -When a person prays for something , and it doesn't happen then their prayer goes unanswered. At times when we pray , we don't feel god's presence (numinous feeling). If god was omnibenevolent/-potent he would answer everyone's prayer. If someone feels like their prayers aren't being listened to, they may turn to agnosticism or atheism.

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Christian Responses-Evil+Suffering&Unanswered Pray

Unanswered Prayers

- Sometimes , God has to say no as we cannot get all we ask for

- God does answer our prayers just not the way we expect him to 

- God may not answer our prayers because we are being selfish, or it is not best for us

Evil And Suffering

1. To help us grow-christians say, we learn from evil and suffering and makes us a better/stronger person;we learn from it e.g. war may make us more forgiving& less judgemental

2.Life is a test-  some christians say this because it  is to see if we are worthy of heaven

3. Afterlife - Christians expect pain in life because in heaven, it is more blissful

4. Freewill - Christians believe another fault for evil+ suff is taking freewill for granted

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Media & Belief in God

Explain the different ways the media can treat its followers?

1. A report may have a negative spin/portray something in a pessimistic way & could change the way we think.

2. At times the media can poke fun at a certain religion so it has a bias/subjective perspective.

3. At times the media can provide a balance view of a religion e.g debates and documentaries

4. Media plays a huge part on our lives as it is everywhere nowadays so it is a major influence on us all.

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Examples of Media and Belief in God

SONGS OF PRAISE

Positives : 

  • The Lyrics are influential to the audience and supports the belief in God; may cause someone to  make their faith stronger
  • People who don't attend church can watch it

Negatives:

  • Its aimed at the older generation and teenagers/the youth may find it boring or put them off religion as it may be seen as old fashioned
  • Too biased; does not show views opposing god.
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Examples of Media and Belief in God Part II

FATHER TED

Positives:

  • Shows that you don't have to be perfect to believe in god; anyone is welcomed to believe in god as the characters all have flaws
  • They are more lighthearted showing that believing in god teaches values of respect, forgiveness, and manners. 

Negatives

  • One of the priest is contantly drunk and says 'Jesus Christ!' frequently, showing that they do not take their faith seriously and may put off someone else
  • The show contains unusual, weird characters which may create the impression that all christians act this way as well as being hypocrites as they teach one thing but do another.
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Section2 Matters of Life and Death - Keywords

Abortion - The removal of a foetus from a womb before it can survive

Euthanasia- The painless killing of someone dying of a painful disease

Assisted Suicide- Providing a seriously ill person with the means to commit suicide

Non- Voluntary Euthanasia -Ending someone's life painlessly when they are unable to ask but you have good reason for thinking they would want you to do so

Voluntary Euthanasia- Ending life painlessly when someone in great pain asks for death

Near-Death experience -When someone about to die has an out of body experience

Paranormal - Unexplained things which are though to have spiritual casues e.g Ghosts, Mediums.

Reincarnation - The idea that, after death, souls are reborn in a new body


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Keywords Part II

Sanctity Of Life- The belief that life is holy and belongs to God

Immortality of the Soul - The idea tha the soul lives on after the death of the body

Quality of life - The idea that life must have some benefits for it to be woth living

Resurrection - The belie that after death, the Body stays in the grave until the end of the world when it is raised

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Catholic's Belief in Life After Death

Why do Catholics Believe in Life after Death?

1. The resurrection of Jesus confirms that Good overcomes evil and power of God overcomes death.

2. They are told thorugh the creed and cathechism that there is such thing as 'Life Everalsting' so there must be a heaven/hell.

3. The resurrection of Jesus gives Catholics hope of eteranl life, immortality of the soul

4. Those pure will go to heaven, those with unforgiven sins will go to purgatory and those who have rejected God will go to hell.


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Catholic's Belief in Life After Death Part II

How will their belief in life after death affect the way they live their lives?

1. They believe that they will be judged by Gof so they live their lives by the expectations/standards of the Bible.

2. Jesus who rose from the dead gives them hope that they too will rise and be rewarded with eternal life.

3. It offers those grieving comfort; they know that heaven awaits their loved ones.

4. Jesus's Resurrection gives hope that they may have their sins forgiven; to have a committed future and to work towards a better future

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The Three Destinations

Heaven- Where the immortal soul rests in peace; here only pure, cleansed souls arrive here

Hell- Where the immortal soul will be punished forever ; here only those who choose to reject god arrive here

Purgatory- Where the immortal soul goes to prepare entry for heaven; both hope (gains entrance to heaven) and suffering (cleansing sins, suffering) occurs here. They are judged.

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Non-Religious Reasons to Believe in Life after Dea

- Those who have lead good lives must be rewarded in the same way that those who have lead bad lives must be punished.

-Almost a second chance; to become a better person in the afterlife

- Near-Death experiences e.g. once the body dies, the 'white light' or flashbacks of your life

-Reincarnation; a sense of deja vu may prompt the idea of memories from another life

- The existence of mediums

-Gives comfort and Hope for those grieving knowing that their loved ones are safe/in a better place

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Reasons NOT to believe in Life after Death

Why do some people not believe in life after death?

- No proof of Life after death. Scientists have sent many astronauts to set out into space in order to find 'heaven' yet they have failed. So where is it? (seeing is believing for some people)

- Mediums give false hope as they trick people into believing that they [mediums] can communicate to their loved ones

- The body rots after death so how is it possible to live again?

- Science provides better answers , so life after death is impossible

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Sanctity of Life Arguement

- Human life is holy and must be protected; you have a responsibility to protect it

- Life is a God given gift; it belongs to god only 

- Only God gave life so only he can take it away

- To take a life is an insult of Gods' gift

- The commandments state 'Do not Kill'

- The catechism teaches that it is wrong to take a life as no one has the right to do so


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UK Law on Abortion

-Became Legal in 1967

- Must be performed in an NHS,Private or Legal clinic

-Must be agreed by two doctors:

  • Evidence that continuing the pregnancy would risk physical/mental health to the mother
  • Disability of the baby
  • Existing children may suffer 

- Must take place before 24 weeks

Abortions after 24 weeks, may occur if:

  • A risk to the life of the mother
  • Evidence of a severe disability of the baby
  • Evidence of physical/mental injury to the mother
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Christian Views on Abortion- Catholics/Evangelical

  • The commandments teach that murder is wrong, so is abortion.
  • God has a plan for every life; aborting a child would interfere therefore abortion goes against god's plan
  • Adoption is the better option
  • They believe that life begins at conception and the foetus is made in the image of god; it should not be destroyed

THEY WILL ALLOW IT UNDER THE CIRUMSTANCE THAT:

  • If the mother is ill and the treatment harms the baby then abortion is allowed as they did not intend to kill the baby anyway. This is called the 'double effect'
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Christian Views on Abortion- Church of England

  • They allow abortion if its the most loving thing to do e.g. Rape
  • They do not believe that life begins at conception 
  • The 'Sanctity of Life' Arguement is broken in cases of war, so why cant it be broken at abortion if the mother's life is at risk
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Christian Views on Abortion- Liberal Protestants

  • Medical advances allow us to detect disability, so we can end suffering
  • God gave humans free will, so people should be able to make their own decisions
  • Christianity is based on justice; if abortions were illegal, then women would seek backstreet abortions. Those who are unable to pay for a backstreet abortion would suffer therefore it is better that abortion is open to everyone
  • Jesus treated people with love and compassion, so should we and as long as abortion is the most loving thing to do then it is fine
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UK Law on Euthanasia

  • All forms of euthanasia are against the law ; anyone involved will be sent to prison (max. 14 years)
  • Switching off a life support machine whose been tested and declared brain dead isn't considered as euthansasia and is permitted in the UK
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Non-Religious Reasons that Support and Oppose Euth

Reasons that SUPPORT Euthanasia

  • Stops families witnessing their loved ones suffering
  • Medicines help people dying, keep them alive but with a LOW QUALITY OF LIFE
  • Saves medical costs
  • Allows a person to die with dignity rather than suffering
  • A person should be allowed to make their own decisions about their life

Reasons that OPPOSE Euthanasia

  • A doctor's job is to save lives, not end them
  • Ill or old people may be pressured into euthanasia by selfish families (e.g. they may be after an inheritance)
  • A cure may be found for an illness
  • Hospitals can provide excellent care for the dying
  • It is not possible to assess if people are in their state of mind when they ask for euthansia e.g. depression
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Christians Response to Euthanasia - Evangelical/Ca

Evangelicals/others

  • Euthanasia is a form of suicide and the bible condemns it
  • If a human is ending a life , they are putting themselves on par/same level as god; this is banned in the bible therefore it is blasphemous
  • Switching off a life support or providing pain relief that shortens life, is not permitted as it is seen as murder

Catholics

  • Are opposed to Euthanasia
  • Taking a life goes against the commandment 'Do not Murder'
  • Sanctitiy of Life arguement
  • No person should value themselves as worthless (quality of life)
  • God created man in his image; only he can take a life
  • Life support: If a person is declared brain dead, the church says switch off the machine as death has occured; it is not euthanasia. Pain relief is allowed, even if it shortens life  as death is not the aim, relief from pain is.
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Christians Response to Euthanasia - Liberals

Liberals

  • Support Euthanasia
  • No Mention in the Bible that a person should be kept alive at all costs
  • An important commandment is 'Love thy Neighbout'; if a person is suffering severely, the most loving thing to do is to allow them to a slow,gentle death
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Media in Life After Death

Different ways to present matters of life and death

  • Newspapers - provides personal opinions/interviews
  • Internet - not accurate as anyone can publish articles with false info. online
  • TV,News,Documentaries - focuses on major issues in depth
  • Soap Operas/TV dramas - using changing plots to examine issues to the general public
  • Situation comedies/Cartoons - to make people/children laught as it shows everyday situat.

Reasons Why Life and Death is important in the media

  • Issues of Life and Death affect everyone
  • People who have strong feelings towards his issue
  • Opinions are divided differently; it is important we know how people think differently
  • Controversial choices need to be discussed openly
  • People have the right to knowabout developments in these issues
  • People need to be aware of how the law can change
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Causes Of World Poverty

War

  • Causes mass destruction of infrastructure and communities
  • Many become refugees in a neighbouring country; as a result that country can become poor as they need to provide for the refugees

Diesase

  • Spread of HIV and Aids have destroyed communities as the medicine is too expensive for LEDC's.
  • Stops work and prevents children going to school as they have to work for very little $$ 

Natural Disasters

  • Most LEDC's are located in parts of the world where earthquakes,floods and droughts.
  • Homes, crops (money maker) are destroyed; cash crops are grown and sold to pay off their debts rather than for the people to feed on.
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Causes Of World Poverty Part II

Debt

  • LEDC's have debt as lots of $$ have been borrowed from MEDC's (high interest rates makes it more difficult)
  • Any money goes straight to paying off their debts 

Corrupt Government:

  • Government leaders receive money for aid (from other countries) instead of giving it to their peoples, they keep it for themselves
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CAFOD Part I

What is CAFOD?                            fhjsdfhks=catholic response to world poverty

  • Catholic Agency For Overseas Development
  • It is a catholic charity in England&Wales that wants to end world Poverty
  • It is inspired by the teachings of the catholics
  • Catholics believe God made human stewards meaning humans have a duty to look after and share the worlds resources
  • It believe all human being have a right to dignity and respect; the world's resources should be shared equally

Why is Charity important for Christians?

  • Jesus constantly spoke about the importance of helping others
  • The story of the Good Samaritan shows us the importance of being compassionate to others
  • In the parable of the Sheep and Goats it confirms that we should help one another
  • One of the main teachings in christianity is to treat others as you would wish to be treated
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CAFOD Part II

How Does CAFOD help? (F.E.E.L)

  • Fundraising - Involved in 'Make Poverty History' and 'Trade Justice' campaigns to help countries work themselves out of poverty. They also appeal to catholic schools and churches once a year in order for them to raise money  for CAFOD's causes.
  • Emergency Aid - This is a short term relief that CAFOD provides usually after a natural disaster. They send clothes, water, medicines as well as nurses and doctors,  this lasts for a short period
  • Education - in two forms: they educate people in th UK about what some people undergo , they set up schools to offer free education overseas. This is another way out of poverty
  • Long Term Aid -  Money is given support them to get out of debt and will help prevent them entering poverty again. Skills such as farming are educated in order to grow crops so they can sell.
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Section3 Marriage and Family - Keywords

Adultery- A sexual act between a married person and someone other than their marriage partner

Cohabitation- Living together without being married

Faithfulness- Staying with your marriage partner and only having sex with them

Nuclear Family- Mother, Father and children living as a unit

Procreation- Making new life

Reconstituted Family- Where two sets of children (stepbrothers&-sisters) become one family when their divorced family parents marry each other

Civil Partnership- A legal ceremony giving homosexual couple the same legal rights as a husband and wife

Contraception- Intentionally preventing pregnancy from occuring

Homosexuality- Sexual attraction to the same sex

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Keywords Part II

Premarital sex- Sex before marriage

Promiscuity- Having sex with a number or partners without commitment

Re-marriage- Marrying again after being divorced from a previous marriage

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Changing Attitudes

In the past.....

  • Women were expected to marry by the age of 25; some thought those unmarried over 25 had something wrong with them
  • Homosexuality was not accepted & people hid it by having a fake marriage (still in the closet)
  • Divorce did not happen; if there were problems they would 'work it out'
  • Premarital sex was scandalous and rarely happened

Now....

  • Women now marry in their late 20's early 30's as they are now more career minded
  • In the 1960's, homosexual acts became legal& is accepted much more; they have equal rights as heterosexual couples have
  • Divorce is far more common today & 45% of marriages will end in divorce
  • Premarital sex is higher as many couples cohabitate before marriage
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Christian attitudes to sex outside of marriage

Evangelicals & Catholics

  • Pre-marital sex is wrong and should be saved for marriage
  • Pre-marital sex leads and promotes promiscuity which is viewed by all christians as wrong
  • The bible teaches that sex is a gift from god & should only occur in a loving, commited marriage

Bible Passages to support this:

  • 'Your body is a temple for the holy spirit' - 1Corinthians 6:19
  • 'You shall not commit adultery' - Exodus 20:14
  • 'Sexual act must take place exclusively within a marriage. Outside marriages it always constitutes a grave sin' - The catechism of the catholic church

Liberal Christians

  • Pre-marital sex can be seen as a step closer to marriage
  • The bible was written long ago and cannot apply to today's society
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Roman Catholic's Purpose on Marriage

  • It is a Sacarament; it brings them closer to God
  • It offers support towards the couple as long as comfort
  • It is Permanent; the promises of marriage are forever
  • It is a Exclusive; the couple will be faithful
  • It is Life Giving ; they will have babies and allow eachother to grow in love

How does this link to the ceremony?

  • It is overseen by the preist as he conducts the ceremony and is god's rep. + gives his blessing
  • Readings that are read, reflect the love that couples should have for eachother
  • Vows are said 'till death do us part' as a declaration of their love in front of their witnesses, a covenant between God and them and a promise between them as a couple
  • When the rings are exchanged they are making the sign of fidelity
  • During the ceremony questions are asked such as 'Will you accept children lovingly from God,and bring them up according to the law of Christ and the Church?'  This is their promise of Procreation.
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Why is Divorce more common?

  • People are less religious amd so do not think it is a sacrament with God
  • People no longer put up with bad treatment from their partner
  • Divorce is Quicker and Cheaper
  • Divorce no longer carries negative stigma like it did in the past
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Christians attitudes to divorce

Catholics

  • Does not allow divorce as a covenant was made with god, no law on earth can break that (they will still be married in the eyes of God and the Church if they are divorced)
  • It is best to raise children in a marriage environment so divorce cannot occur
  • The bible is against it and teaches 'anyone who divorces his wife and marries another ,commits adultery' which is also against the commandments

Liberal Protestants

  • They will sometimes accept divorce and allow the person to re-marry in a church
  • Christianity teaches us about forgiveness; the two people may have made a mistake in marrying eachother and deserve forgiveness
  • A divorce may be the lesser of two evils (may have physical fights or arguements which leads them to suffering)
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Christian attitudes to homosexuality

Evangelicals

  • It is a sin; they should pray to be heterosexual(straight)
  • God created man and woman for marriage (Adam and Eve, Not Adam and Steve!)
  • Homosexuality undermines family and its values

Catholics

  • The bible condemns homosexual acts but not homosexual feelings
  • Sex should only take place in a marriage ; homosexuals cannot get married (yet)
  • Sex is for Procreation; if homosexuals cannot reproduce, they should not have sex 

Liberal Protestants

  • As long as homosexuals maintain a loving,stable and commited relationship , both acts and feelings are allowed
  • The bible presents Ruth and Naomi as an example of a homosexual couple
  • Religion is spiritual, not sexual so a person's sexual orientation has nothing to do with if they are a good person or not
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Catholic Teaching on Family Life

  • Procreation ; catholics believe if you are married then you should have children
  • Raising their children as  catholics; teaching them to pray and serve one another
  • Sets a good example to the children as they are being a good role model to them by loving and providing for them
  • Children should respect their parents and take care of them when they are aged.

Reasons of Catholic teachings in Family Life

  • Jesus was born into a family that loved and cared for him. Parents today should follow the example of the holy family and try to care for their children
  • The family is the best place for children to be raised as when God made the world . he made Adam and Eve created them as the first family
  • One of the commandments state 'Honour your father and mother'
  • In the Ephesians, Paul tells us how families should behave and that children should honour their parents; their parents should care for their children
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Roman Catholic's help: Upbringing of Children

Upbringing of Children:

  • Baptism : ensures that the child is part of the catholic faith, family is given strength to raise the child as the catholic and support of the church,community and godparents is gained
  • Sunday School: enables them to understand/interpret messages of readings as well as it is relatable for children at different stages of learning/abilities can learn at the same level
  • Attending a Catholic school teaches the ideas and beliefs of catholicism. It is also educational as it refers to the catholic faith and its values
  • Church Groups such as brownies  are organised in order to learn about the faith. It creates a positive influence/perpspective on the child and all ages are welcomed
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Roman Catholic's help: Keeping Families Together

Marriage Preparation Courses:

  • This helps to understand the duties and huge responsibilities of Marriage
  • Oppurtunities to see that marriage needs to worked as and won't be easy
  • A good foundation of their married life

Divorce Prevention

  • Shares the Roman Catholic teaching on divorce
  • Helps families and couples who are having a rough time while working harder at their marriage
  • The priests are available for people who seek counselling and advice,help and guidance to make their marriages stronger
  • 'Marriage Care' helps families who are experiencing problems in their relationships and offers advice to help make their marriage work
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Contraception: Methods and Reasons for use of them

Different Types?

  • The pill : taken daily
  • The morning after pill: taken within 72hrs after unprotected sex
  • Barrier Method: condoms (for men), Diaphragm/Cap (for women)
  • The 'Coil' (Intra uterine device) -  placed in the woman's womb
  • Injection - taken every few months
  • Vasectomy/Sterilistation

Reasons that people use them

  • They want to plan when and how many children they have
  • Pregnancy may be harmful to the mother
  • They may not be able to financially/emotionally look after a child
  • They consider themselves to old or too young
  • They feel that they may not be able to provide for their child
  • One/Both partners may carry a genetic condition and don't want it to be passed on
  • A single man may not want to be responsible for a woman's pregnancy
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Christians attitudes to Contraception

Evangelicals and Catholics

  • Believes : EVERY sexual act is open to the possibility of conception
  • Against every form of contraception as it conflicts with procreation ; conception and the birth of a child is prevented so it goes against God's wishes/Plan
  • Contraception encourages promiscuity and spread of STI's
  • Sex is abused as a gift from god; the purpose of marriage is for children
  • Goes against the bible's teaching : 'Be fruitful and multiply'

Church of England/Liberal Christians

  • Believes: Contraception is not regarded as going against God's plan
  • The bible doesn't mention contraception as being wrong
  • Reducing family size can give children a higher standard of living
  • God created sex for pleasure so contraception allows sex for pleasure without fear of falling pregnancy
  • Christianity's essence is love. Contraception is the most loving thing as it protects a womans health. The coil&morning after pill is not accepted by some as it is seen as abortiv
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Section4 Religion&Community Cohesion - Keywords

Community Cohesion - A common vision and shared sense of belonging for all groups is society

Ethnic minority- A member of an ethnic group (race) which is much smaller than the majority group

Multi-ethnic society- Many different races and cultures living together in one society

Prejudice- Believing some people are inferior or superior without even knowing them

Racism- The belief that some races are superior to others

Religious Pluralism- Accepting all religions are having an equal right to coexist

Discrimination- Treating people less favourably because of their ethnicity/gender/colour/sexuality/age/class

Interfaith Marriages- Marriage where the husband and wife are from different religious groups

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Keywords Part II

Multi-Faith Society- Many different religions living together in one society

Racial Harmony- Different races /colours living together happily

Religious Freedom- The right to practise your religion and change your religion

Sexism- Discriminating against people because of their gender (being male or female)

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Changing Attitudes to Women and Men

In the past....

  • Women were not given the right to vote
  • They did not work; usually ended up as being housewives Even those who did work, they were paid less (even if it was the same job as a male). The majority worked in domestic service,shops and textile mills (very few oppurtunites).
  • Women's education was based on preparation for the life of a housewife
  • No laws against sexism placed
  • Men were all expected to have jobs/high end careers
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Changing Attitudes to Women and Men

Now....

  • Representation of the people act - introduced in 1918 and allowed over 30's to vote, and 10 years later, the same act allowed women over 21's to vote
  • Sex Discrimination act introduced in 1975 which made employment on grounds of gender illegal. This allowed many more job oppurtunites for men and women
  • Equal rights to education allowed women to study the same subjects as men did
  • The sex discrim. act also allowed the prevention of women/men to be sexually harrased. Another act put in place was the Employment protection which meant that women's job could not lose their job because they were pregnant; they were permitted to have a 'maternity leave'. In the same way, men are now allowed to have paternity leave and still keep their job.
  • Men now take equal domestic responsibility and work at jobs that women were expected to do e.g. nursing
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Changing Attitudes to Women and Men Part II

Now....

  • Representation of the people act - introduced in 1918 and allowed over 30's to vote, and 10 years later, the same act allowed women over 21's to vote
  • Sex Discrimination act introduced in 1975 which made employment on grounds of gender illegal. This allowed many more job oppurtunites for men and women. The Equal Pay Act, introduced in 1970, gave equal pay to men and women.
  • Equal rights to education allowed women to study the same subjects as men did
  • The sex discrim. act also allowed the prevention of women/men to be sexually harrased. Another act put in place was the Employment protection which meant that women's job could not lose their job because they were pregnant; they were permitted to have a 'maternity leave'. In the same way, men are now allowed to have paternity leave and still keep their job.
  • Men now take equal domestic responsibility and work at jobs that women were expected to do e.g. nursing
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Problems towards Attitudes to Women

  • Statistics today show that there is a slight difference of pay between men and women; men being higher than women
  • There are still jobs that are mainly male dominated e.g. Pilots, Astronauts
  • Some women feel as if they have to work twice as hard as male colleagues to have an equal amount of respect.
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Christian attitudes to Women in Religion

Evangelicals

  • Does not allow women to be ordained as priests
  • They should not take part in mass; they should be silent (timothy- st.paul teaches)
  • Jesus never had any female disciples

Catholics

  • Does not allow women to be ordained as priests although they are seen as equal in society
  • Jesus was a man so priests should be represent Jesus as a man
  • Allow roles in mass such as readings, being eucharistic ministers etc.

Liberals

  • Allows women to be ordained as priests
  • Allow them to participate in mass
  • St.Paul Wrote to the Galatians that there is no difference between men and women
  • Jesus treated women as equal to men; the gospels were written at a time when women weren't respected/treated equally.The church needs to evole with the rest of society
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The UK as a Multi-Ethnic Society

Why is the UK a Multi-Ethnic Society?

  • Refugees have sought saftey here 
  • After WWII, Citizens of the British Empire were permitted to move to Britain if they wished as a reward for helping them defeat their opponents in the war.

Advantages of a Multi-Ethnic Society

  • Brings diversity into the nation ; new cultures, traditions,foods, music etc. are introduced
  • Breaks down boundaries and allows people to recognise similarities ; tolerance is built
  • Unites people as human beings.

Disadvantages of a Multi-Ethnic Society

  • People from ethnic minorities are still being treated unfairly, due to racism
  • Racism can cause violence and division between/within a community
  • Some people feel as if they have lost their jobs due to their ethnic origin (especially in the 80's).
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Government's Actions

The government promotes the idea that communities should:

  • Create a shared sense of belonging
  • Value the difference between the people
  • Give equal oppurtunities to all in the community
  • Create positive relationships in workplaces and schools

1976 Race Relations Act

  • Introduced/Enforced by the government; everyone has equal rights despite their ethinicity/religion
  • Made it illegal to discriminate any person against their colour,race,ethnicity or nationality
  • Also made it illegal for any person to stir up racial hatred by publishing,using offensive words,insulting or threatening words in public.
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Government's Actions Part II

Commision for Racial Equality has three aims/duties

  • Fights against racial discrimination
  • Make people understand the importance of giving everyone an equal oppurtunity
  • Checks on how the law is working and how it can improve
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Catholic Church and Asylum Seekers/Immigrant Worke

Why do they help?

  • All humans are made in God's image and Likeness so we should help others just as we would like to be helped and respect others
  • Mary, Joseph and Jesus is an example; given hospitality in the stable
  • The Bible teaches that its important to treat other humans with dignity
  • Jesus taught that we help the poorest in society, we are helping him so we will be rewarded in heaven
  • The common good teaches that loving our neighbour is universal so all forms of discrimination are wrong; jesus taught us to 'love your neighbour'

How do they help?

  • They offer prayer; the church will pray and help those persecuted
  • Education: they raise awareness of the struggles that an asylum seeker/immigrant face as help them to understand what they go through
  • Practical Help : St.Vincent De Paul is an Organisation that offers financial help (e.g. discounted furniture,low housing cost, food, clothing, education) and advice/support
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Racial Harmony

Why do Catholics Promote Racial Harmony?

  • 70% of Catholics are non-white/non-european
  • Jesus himself welcomed people of different races and opened up God's kingdom to all
  • The Good Samaritan; Jesus teaches us to make no distinction between race or religion when people are in need
  • St.Paul taught in Galatians that everyone is equal in christ
  • Jesus healed people of different races and religion
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Christian attitudes to Other Religions

PLURALISM=LIBERALS

  • Views Other Religions as different paths to God/Heaven
  • They believe this because jesus said there are many rooms to his 'father's house'
  • God is waiting to be discovered and individuals are free to decide what path to take in finding god

INCLUSIVISM=CATHOLICS

  • Views other religions as different paths to God/Heaven but Catholicism is the most truthful path;other religions should be respected
  • They believe this because Jesus was the son of God and he shows God's full nature
  • It is the teaching of the Catholic Church

EXCLUSIVISM=EVANGELICALS

  • Views other religions as the wrong wasy to God/Heaven and Jesus Christ as the ONLY way; they have a duty to convert others
  • They believe this because Jesus said ' I am the way, the truth, the life'
  • They also say to love your neighbour so they feel they should tell others about Christian God
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UK as a Multi-Faith Society

The UK has Religious freedom, which is why many religions are welcomed 

Benefits of a Multi-Faith Society

  • Increased tolerance between communities; respecting one another
  • A deeper understanding of deeper ways of life and traditional customs
  • People understand about other faiths
  • Broader thinking through shared religious ideas
  • Your own faith strenghtened becuase of example of other believers
  • Peace: Knowledge and respect can stop fights/wars
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UK as a Multi-Faith Society Part II

Negatives of a Multi-Faith Society

  • Interfaith faith marriages: may cause to question what ceremony to carry out, it may upset family members/cause conflict, which faith to raise their children,what traditional customs to choose (e.g. circumcision in islam/judaism) or how they will be buried (e.g. jewish people are buried in jewish cemeteries only so they may be separated from their relatives)
  • Conversion: Some religions believe that it is their duty to convert others so it causes conflict and disrespect/offence to other religions
  • Upbringing Children: teaching a religion to a child involves prayer,faith schools and worship which can cause misunderstanding and resentment.
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Community Cohesion in the Media

  • The Simpsons have multi-faiths within the family but they still work closely together as a family unit (nuclear family)
  • The vicar of dibley tackles the issue of women as priests
  • Eastenders shows the success of a multi-faith/ethnic society can be
  • 'This is England' shows the problems that link in with a multi-ethnic society (racism)
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Matters Of Life and Death in the Media

  • 'Right to Die?'was a documentary released in 2008 which presented Craig Ewert (who suffered from Lou Gehrigs's Disease) who travelled to Dignitas (euthanasia organisation) to commit assisted suicide. It received mixed reactions because they filmed Ewert dying
  • Soaps and TV drama's e.g. Eastenders present abortion as a controversial topic; usually there are helplines for those who seek advice and support
  • CAFOD usually create adverts to appeal and to show the constant poverty in LEDC's and the struggle to defeat world poverty
  • TV Shows such as Sally Morgan: Star Psychic shows that perhaps there is a Life after death because her audience members are amazed at her accuracy to communicate to their relatives/loved ones
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Marriage and Family Life in the Media

  • The Simpsons- sets a good example of a nuclear family as they work together to overcome their daily life struggles
  • Eastenders portray the Jackson family (extended) as both complicated and loving: complicated because they are quite diverse and face different storylines and loving because they too work together when they can
  • Celebrities Such as Jodie Marsh who created a show called 'Totally Jodie Marsh: Who'll Take her up the Aisle?' Presents marriage as not serious and it being just for fun. She married but split up 2 months later and said it was 'never real'
  • Teenagers are portrayed as rebellious and unruly/disobedient 
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Comments

Shazam2002

very good

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