Two different diagnostic manuals both used
DSM-IV and ICD-10
Arent identical meanning concistancy of diagnosis needs to be questioned
Risk of Proffessional Jargon
Wording in manuals are used for specialists to understand not laymen
BECK - Inter-rate reliability
Looked at the inter-rater reliablity between two psychiatrists of 154 patients.
Reliablity was only 54%
Diagnosis can only be made once patient has been clinical interviewed
Psyciatrists rely on retrospective data
Given by an individual whose ability to recall relevent information is unpredictable.
Hard for psychitrists to tell if their telling the truth.
ROSENHAN Subjective, Interpretation
Tested the subjectivity, reliablilty and validity of diagnostic tools
Recruited 8 friends to psychiatric hospitals reporting 1 symptom
When admitted they began to act normally
All apart from one were diagnosed with schizophrenia
ROSENHAN told them about his results and warned they should expect more fakes.
41 patients were suspected of being fakes when he had admitted noone this time.
Limited time and resources available in NHS
Diagnosis made when they are rushed and preoccupied
Only admit most serious cases to safeguard the resources
Characteristics taken out of their cultural norms may be seen as abnormal.
Resulting in an inaccurate diagnosis
DAVISON & NEALE - cultural study
Asain cultures: show no emotion (characteristic of schizo)
Arabic cultures: public emotion encouraged
without this knowledge, an individual displaying overt emotional behaviour may be diagnosed wrongly
Clinician may not speak the same language as patient
Leading to things being 'lost in translation'
May lead to inappropriate/no treatment