- Created by: KDallers-
- Created on: 15-05-19 19:51
Intro to Regionalism - What is it?
Viewed as a RESPONSE to globalisation - challenging the issues presented by globalisation; seen as a 'way out' of the negatives, while maintaining most of the benefits; INCREASING - 267 regional organisations in February 2016 (including ASEAN, EU, AU, MERCOSUR) - challenges realism
- Regionalisation defined by Harrell as "the growth of social integration within a region... and of social and economic integration" - this is what REGIONALISM is all about
- COOPERATION AND INTEGRATION - integration is about CHANGING domestic rules, whereas cooperation is more about harmonisation between 2 nations - regionalism offers a COMBINATION, involving pooling of sovereignty and delegating to supranational bodies in some instances (Moravscik)
- HISTORY - Europe post-WW2 sought regional integration following the failure of the League of Nations and UN - looked for 'ever closer union' to stand up to the US and USSR - becoming more multilateral through supranational government - has developed over time
- 'NEW REGIONALISM' - Telo - shows a need for deeper integration following Cold War in a multilateral society; can respond to crises effectively - DOESN'T mean SUPRANATIONALISM - Nordic common market in the 1950s, for example
EU as an Example of Regionalism
Challenging bipolarity of the US and USSR without taking a side - trying to introduce multipolarity/'tripolarity' - seeking peace and cooperation through a post-war consensus - started with 1951 Steel and Coal Committee and EFTA, and has increased constantly with SEA in 1980s, Maastricht Treaty, Nice Treaty, Lisbon Treaty - now looking towards 'federal structure'
- INSTITUTIONS: - Commission (bureaucracy and spitzenkandidaten), - Council, - Parliament and many others seeking to balance DEMOCRACY, SOVEREIGNTY, AND EFFICIENCY
- VIEW OF EU - Puchala - 'a blind man leading elephants' - about the pooling of sovereignty, and depoliticising nationally to facilitate economic cooperation - loss of sovereignty?
- ISSUES - Eurozone crisis - what should the EU be doing? Sense of 'contagion' across EU from Ireland, Portugal, Greece - Orban/Salvini/nationalists believe EU should work differently to how Merkel/Macron see this - decision of the EU have MAJOR REGIONAL REPERCUSSIONS
IS THE EU DEMOCRATIC? YES: - Parliament is elected, - member states can discuss, - output legitimacy (democratic output); NO: - Commission unelected, - German hegemony, - input legitimacy (Commission and lack of elections)
AMERICAS - issue of Latin America vs the USA
- The O.A.S fell apart, leading to North American NAFTA 1986, and Latin American MERCOSUR 1991, with C.A.N 1997 - very little regional integration between North and South
AFRICA - based on anti-colonialism and REGIONS OF AFRICA
- Western, ex-French colonies formed WAEMU, Central CEMAC (monetary union pegged to Euro), Southern SACU (pegged to Rand), and a 2010 Eastern COMMON MARKET; less supranationalism, due to cultural divide (Arab North - AMU) - African Union have a peacekeeping role across the continent - in Somalia for example
ASIA - about relations with the US and Russia - South Asia and East Asia
- Eastern - ASEAN - formed for SECURITY PURPOSES 1967 - has done a moderately good job, given national and cultural divides within - became more ECONOMIC in 1992 - FTA - however, trying to promote stability still; US vs China - APEC vs TPP - which organisation will win? TPP yet to be ratified
CIS - issues of the zones of influence, especially in Ukraine - pro-EU or pro-Russia?
What do Regional Bodies do?
4 key functions: - MANAGEMENT OF INDEPENDENCE (consolidating identities of smaller, independent states through pooling of sovereignty), - MANAGEMENT OF INTERDEPENDENCE (creating security communities and promoting formal integration), - MANAGEMENT OF INTERNATIONALISATION (giving weight to multinational bodies for orderly internationalisation), and GEOPOLITICS (trying to break existing geopolitical divides, and organising those that remain)
- REGIONALIST POLITICS - often creates a 'domino effect', as regional bodies respond to one another - trying to develop through cooperation (such as ASEAN), however regional bodies do COMPETE with each other; pooling sovereignty, but still trying to give individual states a say
Regional bodies offer RESPONSES TO CRISES: such as the GFC 2008 (EU response) and the Eurozone crisis (for example, bailouts for Greece)
- REGIONAL BODIES WORK TO BALANCE INTERNATIONAL INTEGRATION WITH TERRITORIAL SOVEREIGNTY - A MIDDLE ROAD OF GLOBALISATION
Regionalism and Globalisation
Regionalism seeks to provide a step between national and global in terms of governance
- Trade agreements within regional bodies can CONSTRAIN states and encourage COMPETITION - a balance between the 'trilemma' of globalisation?
- Offers CULTURAL COHESION - states can forge new relationships through COMMON GROUND developed within regional bodies - based on values - WESTERN LIBERAL VALUES = EU BONDING; however, not so possible in ASEAN due to CULTURAL DIVIDES
- Regionalism encourages 'collective action' and coming together in a multipolar world - protecting sovereignty, but encouraging economic integration
DANI RODRIK - there is potential for 'perfect integration', but this is unlikely to happen due to borders, languages, exchange rates; investment - people invest in their own nations if they are ADVANCED ECONOMIES, and transaction costs and foreign contracts pose issues for INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INTEGRATION
- Regionalism acts as a response to these issues - globalisation in a more broken-up manner
Based on Obstfeld and Taylor's original MACROECONOMIC TRILEMMA; adapts this to a 'political trilemma of globalisation; - 3 key areas: NATION-STATE, INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INTEGRATION, MASS POLITICS - can only have 2 - all three are incompatible
- INTEGRATION-POLITICS - federalism - a global federalist system would be needed if mass politics and integration were to be retained; the nation-state would be sacrificed - much like the USA, or EU route towards a 'United States of Europe' - removes barriers for integration
- INTEGRATION-NATION-STATE - Friedman's 'Golden Straitjacket' - retains sovereignty and promotes integration, but narrows political options due to SUPRANATIONALISM - "YOUR ECONOMY GROWS, YOUR POLITICS SHRINKS"
- POLITICS-NATION-STATE - Bretton-Woods - leads to trade liberalisation and less border restrictions, but not to the extent that integration can occur - only cooperation - worked until the 1980s, then splintered into European integration, Japanese capitalism and growth in the Third World
Strengths, Criticisms and Future of Regionalism
STRENGTHS: - allows the state to pursue the national interest; - beneficial for small states (can pool sovereignty and exercise the benefits of multilateralism); - promotes socioeconomic benefits and liberalisation - BHAGURATI
CRITICISMS: - reduction of territorial sovereignty if leaning towards federalism; - constraints placed on states (new supranational bodies and rules to adhere to); - entrenches inequality (in a similar manner to globalisation), - POSTCOLONIALISM - regionalism REIFIES colonial perspectives, as powerful states dominate and become more powerful - such as the EU and CAP exploiting POORER FARMERS
FUTURE: Rodrik - believes in federalism with global authorities, officials, elections and more INNOVATIVE forms of governance
- This will occur due to technological advancements, maintanence of citizenship, and looking toward the WORLD MARKET for prosperity
- SOUNDS REMARKABLY LIKE THE WAY THE EU IS GOING
Key Thinkers of Regionalism
Rodrik - trilemma, future of regionalism
Best and Christensen - examples of African, American, African regionalism
Harrell - definition of 'regionalisation'
Moravscik - concept of supranationalism
Telo - 'new regionalism' post-Cold War
Puchala - EU being 'blind man leading an elephant'
Obstfeld and Taylor - original macroeconomic trilemma
Friedman - 'Golden Straitjacket'
Bhagurati - the strengths/weaknesses of regionalism