- Viceroy of India
- Created the Northwest Frontier in 1901- created a buffer zone around India to prevent attack, replaced British troops with local warlords to gain respect.
- Believed to be Russians invading Tibet- sent troops to find out- none there- killed monks and innocent civillians- disgraced and resigned.
- Also created Adminastrative policy- built more railways and transport links
- Initiated Paritition of Bengal in 1905- split Bengal into two- West and East-
- West consisted of Orissa and Bihar- 42 million hindu majority- ANGERED THE MUSLIMS
- East consisted of Assam- 18 million Muslim majority- ANGERED THE HINDUS
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Muslim League creation
- Muslim League created in 1906
- Not important or prominent until 1916
- Created by Nawab Viqar-ul-Mulk
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Morely-Minto Reforms/ Indian Councils Act 1909
- John Morely and Viceroy Minto
- These reforms suggested- increasing provincial councils to create non official majorities, seperate electorates for Muslims and Hindus
- disliked by Congress, thought it was favouring the minority and it was unfair
- Made laws in the Councils act
- allowed Indians to be allowed in policy making in India and Britain, a small voice, but a voice.
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Montagu Declaration 1917
- Promised that India would have 'dominion' status in the near future
- allowing India to govern themselves but within the British empire
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Montagu- Chelmsford Reforms 1919
- Provincial and central legisaltive councils enlarged
- Provincials given control over health, education, agriculture, local self government and public works.
- British retained control over military matters, foreign affairs, currency, communications and cirminal law.
- Reserved seats in provincial legislatures for religious groups
- = DYARCHY- split of powers between British and Indians
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Lucknow Pact 1916
- Pact between Hindu's and Muslims/ Congress and Muslim League
- Agreed to join for one mutual aim- independance
- Planned for increased electorates for Muslims
- Congress went on to regret making such extravagant promises
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Rowlatt Acts 1919
- Made public meetings with three or more people present illegal
- Increased cenorship
- allowed trials without jurys and imprisonment without trials
- led to Amritsar Massacre
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Amritsar Massacre 1919
- started because Hartals were organised as protest against Rowlatt Acts
- General Dyer was in Amritsar in the Punjab
- Came across a religious festival in the Jallianwala Bagh, which also was a political meeting about Rowlatt Acts
- Men, women and children present- not armed.
- He entered through the only entrance and blocked it, no escape route.
- Couldn't fit the armoured tank through- blessing!
- Made his 400 roops open fire on people
- Over 400 killed and over 1500 injured
- Led to the Hunter Commission
- Dyer rewarded by British government for protecting the people
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Civil Disobedience 1920-1922
- Gandhi's first Civil Disobedience campaign
- Boycotts, hartals, abstaining from schools, jobs, withhold taxes, refuse to by imported goods, boycott elections
- Included Moplah rebellion- the Moplahs forcilbly converted Hindus to Islam
- Came to a head in Chauri Chaura in 1922- congress supporters torched a police station, killin 22 Indian policeman
- Gandhi called satyagraha off
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Simon Commission 1928
- Lord Simon sent to India to make changes to the Government of India Act
- Overshadowed by the Nehru Report the same year
- recieved badly by Indians- boo's, jeers, 'simon go home!'
- many people including congress and muslim league boycotted the Commission
- abandoned before publication
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Nehru Report 1928
- It reccommended dominon status on the same terms as other white- self governing country under British rule.
- Muslims deeply unhappy as would lose the protection of seperate electorates
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Salt March 1930
- Lead by Gandhi, campaign.
- Took salt from the sea, boycotting British salt taxes- illegal
- Many, including Gandhi arrested.
- Thousands of people joined and walked 240 miles to the Gujarat coast, stopping at Ashrams on the way to pray
- he preached non violence to everyone on the way
- gandhi urged others in the country using the press to do the same, thousands of Indians across the country took salt from the sea and were arrested
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1st Roundtable Conference
- Large meeting for all political parties
- Congress absent as leaders in prison
- Nothing too important established as important people missing
- India would be ran as a type of dominion]
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Gandhi-Irwin pact 1931
- Both made concessions
- Gandhi agreed to stop the civil disobedience and to attend a second roundtable conference
- Irwin had to lift some emergency restrictions and release 19,000 congress supporters from Gaol, and confiscated property had to be returned to owners.
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2nd & 3rd Roundtable conference
- 2nd:1931- Gandhi in attendance, no other members of congress present.
- Nothing acheived as Gandhi came across as arrogant, as he wanted to represent everybody which annoyed the others at the conference.
- 3rd: 1932- New British government in power, had less supporters in Inda= no Labour representatives there, or Congress reps.
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Individual Civil Disobedience 1933-1934
- started by Gandhi again, encouraged by Congress, telling people to 'take responsibility for thei actions'
- Riots, protests, violence
- Gandhi called it off as it went against his principles of Ahimsa
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Indian general elections 1937
- Congress won by a landslide
- Muslim League did badly, Jinnah was in self imposed exile in London so wasn't bothere
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Cripps Mission 1942
- Churchill sent Sir Stafford Cripps to India to find out what people wanted
- Cripps offered dominion status right after WW2
- unsuccessful as people wanted full independence
- Churchill set it out to fail as he knew the proposals would immediately be rejected by all, and Cripps was a strong political oponent of Churchills so wanted him to fail.
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Atlantic Charter 1941
- Between Churchill and Roosevelt
- Wanting independence and to get rid of sovereignity for all countries
- Churchill thought this to be applicable to newly controlled, not existing- Roosevelt thought it to mean all countries in the empire
- Churchill agreed to get America on their side for WW2- support
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Indian National Army created 1943
- Chandra Bose created the INA amidst WW2
- Made up of mainly POW's
- Went to Germany in the hope of gaining support from Hitler against British
- Failed, but directed towards Japan
- Succeeded and gained many Japanese soldiers
- Bose killed in plane crash in 1945
- INA overall not very successful; never fought on the front line, limited money and weapons
- BUT, showed they could rouse movement in India
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Bengal Famine 1943-44
- Wavell acted practically as Viceroy
- Widespread famine and drought, crops failed as monsoons failed
- Cholera, Malaria etc spread like wildfire
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British general election 1935
- Churchill out, Clement Attlee in
- Labour more likely to make concessions, India happier
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Lahore Resolution 1940
- Muslim League meeting
- Declared the want for a seperate Muslim state- Pakistan
- attended by 10,000 muslims
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Cabinet Mission 1946
- Pethick-Lawrence, AV Alexander and Stafford Cripps sent to India
- Aimed to
- Proposals eventually agreed to by Congress and Muslim League after much deliberation
- However, Nehru called a conference soon after accepting, boasting that as soon as Congress gain power from these proposals, the Muslim League will be no more and there would be Hindu dominance.
- Jinnah feared this to be true, so pulled out of the proposls at the last minute, making the whole mission collapse
- Led to Direct Action from Jinnah and Muslim League
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Direct Action and Calcutta Killings 1946
- Jinnah and Muslim League initiated it
- Told British police in India to make it a public holiday= no police around to mediate
- Bloodshed, Muslims killed Hindus and Hindus killed Muslims
- Criminal underworld of India also contributed, using the religious factions as smokescreens for their own activity
- Raj took emergency powers to quash all violence
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Interim Government 1946
- Consisted of:
- External Affairs and Commonwealth Relations Jawaharlal Nehru Defence Baldev Singh Home (including Information and Broadcasting) Vallahbhai Patel Finance Liaquat Ali Khan Posts and Air Abdur Rab Nishtar Food and Agriculture Rajendra Parsad Labor Ragjivan Ram Transport and Railways M.Asaf Ali Industries and Supplies John Matthai Education and Arts C. Rajgopalacharia Works, Mines and Power C.H. Babha Commerce I.I. Chundrigar Law Jogindar Nath Mandal Health Ghazanfar Ali Khan
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Plan Balkan 1947
- Initial plan from Viceroy Mountbatten
- Travelled around India in the first part of his Viceregal reign to see what the people wanted
- All pointed to partition despite strict advice from Brit Govt. NOT to give in
- Wrote this plan as a first draft; allowed all states and provinces to choose their own futures
- Mountbatten showed Nehru as they were personal close friends first, but Nehru pointed out the flaws; congress would refuse and it would weaken their position, civil war would ensue.
- Mountbatten created a new Plan Balkan quickly, as they wanted to exit India before it crumbled.
- Boundary Comission created to draw up lines between India and Pakistan; led by Sir Cyril Radcliffe as he was impartial towards either side. 5 weeks to complete the work.
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Partition 15th August 1947
- huge amounts of carnage ensued during the period of partition
- around 1 million people never made it to their destinations as they were killed en route.
- 10 million people tried to change lands in summer of 1947
- huge refugee problem after partition, jobs etc.
- More than 30 million Muslims had to stay in India
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WW1 for India 1914-1918
- Indians automatically supported the British and fought alongside them
- 64,449 Indians died in the war
- Raised Indian Self Esteem fighting alongside British
- Self determination
- By the end of 1919, around 1.5 million Indian men had been recruited
- Indian people felt increased taxes, fuel prices rose, imported goods increased by 190%!
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WW2 for India 1939- 1945
- Linlithgow announced Britain were at war with Germany unexpectedly
- This comitted over 300 million Indians to fight on the British side
- Congress horrified as they were consulted in this announcement, refused to fight and withdrew from local politics- unless Brit would give them immediate swaraj- didn't happen
- this gave Muslim League oppurtunity to gain confidence and popularity by cosying up to British and joining them in the war now Congress were out of the picture momentarily.
- Imports dropped so industry in India rocketed
- Cost Britain millions, made India a porspect no longer worth having
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Government of India 1935
- india divided into 11 provinces, controlling almost everything except defence and foreign affairs
- dyarchy would be abolished
- seperate electorates would continue as before
- Burma seperated from india and given on government
- Sindh and Orissa created
congress and muslim league rejected the act- congress because they wanted swaraj, complete self rule not a half way compromise. ML because it didn't give them enough power, rights wouldn;t be protected.
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