halogenoalkanes are more reactive then alkanes
This is because halogenoalkanes have a polar bond and because the C-X bond in halogenoalkanes is weaker then the C-H bond in alkanes
Hydrolysis: (replacing C-X with C-OH)
they are hydrolysed when reacted with ethanoic sodium hydroxide solution to form alcohols.
This reaction is Neutrophilic.
Reactivity increses down the halogen group
In this reaction even OH or H2O behave as the nucleophile
with Ammonia: (Nucleophile stronger than water)
they react with ammonia when heated under pressure with ethanoic ammonia to form primary amines and HX.
Formation of nitriles: (R-C=N)
They react with Cyanide when refluxed with ethanalic KCN or ethanoic NaCN to form nitrile.
they under go an elimination reaction where a hydrogen halide is eliminated when refluxed with ethanoic sodium hydroxide. there by forming an alkene.