- Created by: Jodiec53
- Created on: 24-03-19 18:55
Deviation From Social Norms
Definition: Concerns behaviour that is different from the accepted standards of behaviour in a community or society.
- Draws a line between desirable and undesirable behaviours
- Labels individuals acting undersirably as social deviants
- Allows interference into their lives to help them.
- These norms will vary across cultures, genders, situations and ages.
- Whats seen as a norm and acceptable in one culture/situation may not be acceptable in another.
- Important consideration - degree to which social norm is deviated from and how important society sees thst norm as being.
Deviation From Social Norms - Strengths
- Helps People
- Soiety gives itself the right to intervene in abnormal peoples lives - could be beneficial
- individuals that need it may not be able to get help themselves.
- social dimensions
- Definition gives socisl dimention to idea of abnormality
- offers an alternative to the isolated 'sick in the head' individuals
- Situational norms
- Considers social dimentions of behaviour.
- A behaviour seen as abnormal in one setting is regarded as normal in another (nudest beach)
- Developmental norms
- Establishes what behaviours are normal for different ages (nappys for 2 year olds)
- Distinguishes between normal/abnormal
- Clear indication of what is and isnt seen as normal behaviour.
- Protects society.
- Seeks to protect society from the effects an individual's abnormal behaviour can have on others.
Deviation From Social Norms - Limitations
- Social norms are not real - they ae based on opinions of social elites within society rather than majority opinion.
- used to control those seen as a threat to social order.
- Change over time
- Norms defined by society often relate to moral standards that may vary over time as social attitudes change (homosexuality)
- Those whho do not conform to social norms ,ay not be abnormal.
- Indivualistic or eccentric - not problematic.
- Ethnocentric bias
- Western social norms reflect the behavior of the majority white population.
- Deviation from norms by ethnic groups meas ethnic minorities are over representative in the mental illness statistics(Cochran 1977)
- Cultural bias / relativism
- Cultural diffrences
- Cultural norms vary wthin and across cultures
- Difficult to know if they are beingn broken
The Failure to Function Adequately
Definition: Occurs when someone is unable to cope with ordinary demands of day to day living.
- Sees individual as abnormal when their behavior suggests that they cannot cope with evryday life.
- Behaviour is abnormal when it causes sidtress leading to an inablitly to function properly
- Disrupting ablitiy to work and/or conduct satisfying interpersonal relatinships
- Often ctaegorised by not being able to experience the usual range of emotions or behaviours.
- Focuses on individual suffering.
- Drawing attention to the personal experience association with mental disorder
Rosenhan & Seligaman (1989):
- Personal dysfunction has seven features. The more an individual has the more they are classes as abnormal.
1. Personal distress - Key feature of abnormality, includes depression and anxiety disorders.
2. Maladaptive behaviour - behaviour stopping individuals from attaining life goals, both socially and occupationally.
3. Unpredictable - Displaying unexpected behaviours characterised by loss of control (multiple suicide attempts)
4. Irrational - Displacing behaviour that cannot be explained in a rational way.
5. Observer discomfort - Displaying behaviour causing discomfort to other.
6. Violation of moral standards - Displaying behaviours that violate society's moral standards
7. Unconventionality - Unconventional behaviours
Failure to Function Adequately - Strengths
- Matches sufferers' perception
- Most people seeking help believe they are suffering from psychological problems that interfere with the ability to function properly
- Supports definition.
- Assess degree of abnormality
- GAF scored on a continuous scale
- see the degree to which individuals are abnormal.
- Decides who needs psychiatric help
- Observable behaviour
- Allows judgement by others of whether individuals are functioning properly
- focuses on observable behaviours
- provides a practical checklist.
- Personal perspective
- Recognises personal experience of sufferers
- Allows mental disorders to be regarded from the perception of the individual suffering from them.
Failure to Function Adequately - Limitations
- Abnormality is not always accopanied by dysfunction.
- Psychopaths - dangerous personality disorder - can cause great harm but can still appear normal.
- Abnormal but didnt display abnormal behaviour.
- Subjective nature of the features of dysfunction.
- GAF doesnt consider behaviour from an individual perspective
- What is normal for an eccentic person is abnormal for someone else
- Normal abnormality.
- Times in peoples lives when it is normal to suffer distress - when a loved one dies
- grieving in psychologically healthy to overcomeloss.
- Definition doesnt consider this.
- Distress to others
- Could cause distress to one person and not another.
- Personally rewarding abnormality
- An individuals apparently dysfunctional behaviour may actually be rewarding.
- Cultural differences
- Whast considered normal functioning varies from culture to culture
- Abnormal functioning in one culture should not be used to judge peoples bhaviour in other cultures
Deviation From Ideal Mental Health
Definintion : Occurs when someone does not meet a set of criteria for good mental health.
- Percieves abnormality in a similar way to how physical health is assessed.
- By looking for signs of an absence of wellbeing
- Any deviation away from what is seen as normal is classed as abnormal.
- Needs set of characteristics of what is required to be normal
- More characteristics individuals fail to meet, the more abnormal they are.
- Focuses on behaviours and characteristics seen as desirable, ratehr than undesirable.
Marie Jahoda (1958)
Six characteristics that individuals should exhibit in order to be normal.
- Positive attitude towards oneself - Having self respect and a positive self-concept.
- Self actualisation - Experiencing personal growth and development.
- Autonomy - being independant, self-reliant and able to make personal decisions.
- Resisiting stress - having effectivecoping stratehies and being able to cope with everyday anxiety-provoking situations.
- Accurate perception of reality - perceiving the world in a non-distorted fashion. Having an objective and realistic view of the world.
- Environmental mastery - Being competent in all aspects of life and able to meet the demands of any situation - flexibility to adapt to changing life circumstances.
Deviation from ideal metal health - Strengths
- Emphasises positives achievements rather than failures and distress.
- Stressed positive approach to menatl problems by focusing on what is desirable not undesirable.
- Targets areas of dysfunction
- Allows targeting of which area to work on when treating abnormality.
- Important when treating different disorders.
- Considers individuals as whole person rather than focusing on areas of their behaviour.
- Goal Setting
- Permits identification of exactly what is needed to achieve normality.
- Allows creatiom of personal goals to work towards.
- Facilitating self-growth
Deviation from ideal metal health - Limitations
- Over demanding criteria
- Most people do not meer all the ideals
- critera may be ideals, rather than actuality.
- Subjective critera
- Criteria is vague and difficult to measure
- Relises largely on self-report - mentally ill not reliable.
- Contextual effects
- Mental health criteria are affected by context.
- Changes over time
- Perceptions of reality change over time.
- Cultural Variation
- Criteria - culturally relative
- Should not be used to judge others of different cultures
- Non-desiablity of autonomy
- Collectivist cultures stress communal goals and behaviours - sees autonomy as undesirable
- Culuturally biased
Definition: Occurs when an individual has a less common characteristic, for example being more depresses or less intelligent than most of the population.
- Behaviours that are statistically rare should be seen as abnormal.
- Statistics gathered that claim to meausre characteristics and behaviours
- Show how they are distributed throughout general popluation.
- What is regarded as statistically rare depends on normal distribution.
- Most people are on or around the mean
- Declining amounts of people away from mean (above or below)
- Individuals who fall outside 'normal distribution' - usually about 5% of the population re perceivedas abnormal.
Statistical Infrequency - Strengths
- Can be appropriate
- In many situations can define abnormality
- Cut off point
- No value judgements
- Behaviour isnt seen as wrong or unacceptable - just less frequent (hommosexuality)
- Evidence for assistance
- used to justify requests for psychiatric assessments
- Based on real data
- Relies on real, unbiased data
- Overall view
- Gives overview of what behaviours and characteristics are infrequent in a given population
Statistical Infrequency - Limitations
- Where to draw the line
- Not sure how far deviate from the norm to be seen as abnormal.
- Many disorders may vary greatly between individuals in terms of severity.
- Not all infrequent behaviours are abnormal
- Some rare behaviors and characteristics are desirable rather than undesirable. (high intelligence)
- Not all abnormal behaviours are infrequent
- Some statisitaclly frequent normal behaviours are abnormal.
- E.g. 10% of the population will be chronically depressed at some point in life. this isnot seens as abnormal under this definition.
- Cultural factors
- Doesnt consider cultural factors
- Whats statistically normal in onecountry and not in another.
- Type of anxiety disorder
- Anxiety - a state of emotional and physical arousal. The emotions include having worried thoughts and feelings of tension. physical changes include an increased heart rate and sweatiness. Anxiety is a normal reaction to stressful situations, but can affect the accuracy and detail of eyewitness testimony.
- Phobias - An irrational fear of an object or situation.
- Anxiety levels out of proportion to any actual risk.
Phobia - Symptoms
- Avoidant / anxiety response:
- Confrontation with fear object/situation produces high anxiety.
- Efforts amde to avoid fear objects - reduces chances of such anxiety occurring.
- Disruption of functioning:
- Anxiety and avoidance - so extreme - severly interfere with the ability to conduct everyday working and social functioning.
- Persistant, excessive fear
- produces high leels of anxiety - presence of anticipation of fear object/situation.
- Fear from exposure to phobia stimulus.
- Immediate fear response - panic attacks
- Due to presentation of fear objective/situation
- Recognition of exaggerated anxiety
- Phobic's - consciously aware that anxiety levels they experience are overstated
Phobia - Types
- Fears of specific things and environments.
- Animal phobias - e.g. Arachnophobia (spiders)
- Injury phobas - e.g. Haematophobia (blood)
- Situational phobias - e.g. Aerophobia (flying)
- Natural environnment phobias - e.g. Hydrophobia (water)
Social Phobias :
- Over-ancious in social situations
- Perception of being judged and feeling inadequate
- Often find conducting meaningful relationships difficult
- Performance phobias - Anxious about going out in public - e.g. Speaking in public
- Interaction phobias - Anxious about mixing with others - e.g. Interviews, Going on a date
- Generalised phobias - Anxious about situations where other people are present - e.g. Crowds, Concerts, Football matches
Phobia - Types - Part 2
- Fear of leaving home or a safe place.
- Experience panic attacks - feel vulnerable in open spaces.
- Can be brought on by simple phobias.
- Natural avoidance is too find and stay in safe place (home).
- Animals tend to have early onset - followed by other simple phobias - social phobias - agrophobia.
- Can either be learnt from experience or genetically transmitted.
- Affective mood disorder involving lengthy disturbance of emtions.
- 20% of people will suffer from some sort of depression.
- Women are twice as vulnerable to suffer from depression.
- Can occur in cycles - symptoms comig and going overtime.
- Episodes lasting around 2-6 months.
- High suicide rates - 10% od depression sufferers commit suicide.
- To be diagnosedd the sufferer must experience at least 5 sympotms everyday for two weeks - impairment in general functioning must also be present
- There must not be any other medical condition or event that could contribute to the symptoms - e.g. mourning.
- Major depression - one of 5 symptoms, must be constant depressed mood or lesssend interest in daily activities.
- Dysthmic depression - 3 or more symptoms shown, including depressed mood - shows symptoms for more than 2 months.
- Depression occurring without mania.
- Only experience depression.
- 25% of women will suffer from Unipolar depression, 12% of men.
- Characterised by clinical symptoms, usually occuring in cycles.
- Severe version - delusions - more social impairments and episodes of depression occur more frequenty.
- Doesnt respond well to anti-depressants but does respond to a comdination of of anti-depressants and anti-psychotics
Unipolar Depression Symptoms
- Loss of energy
- Social impairment
- Weight changes
- Poor personal hygiene
- Disturbance of sleep pattern
- Loss of enthusiasm
- Constant depressed mood
- Reduced concentration
- Thoughts of death
- Poor memory
- Less common
- Effects 2% of people
- Mixed episodes of mania and depression.
- High energy levels
- Reckless behaviour
- Elevated mood states
- Lack of guilt
- Irrational thought process
- Anxiety disorder.
- Experience persistent and intrusive thoughts occuring as obsessions, compulsions or a combination of the two.
- Things people think about.
- Comprise forbidden or inappropriate ideas and visual images that arent base on reality.
- e.g. Beingn convinced germs are everywhere.
- Leads to feelings of extreme anxiety.
- What peopple do as a result of obsessions.
- Comprise intense, uncontrollable urges to reperirively perform tasks and behaviours.
- e.g. Washing hands for an extensive amount of time to get rid of germs.
- Attempt to reduce distress or prevent feared events
- Most realise their obsessive ideas and compulsions are excessive, cannot consiously control them.
- Become time-consuming - interfere with ability to conduct every day activities.
- Only effects 2% of the population.
- Hinder to function properly everyday.
- Social impairment
- Extreme anxiety
- Recurrent and persistant thoughts
- Recognised as self-generated
- Realisation of inappropriateness
- Attention to bias
Common obsessions - Contamination - germs, fear of losing control, perfectionism, religion - fear of being immoral.
- Hinder to function adequately in everyday life
- Social impairment
- Uncontrollable urges
- Realisation of inappropriateness.
Common compulsions - Excessive washing/cleaning, excessive checking, repetitions - body movements, metal compulsions, hoarding.
Explaining Depression - Becks negative triad
- Beck (1987) - people become depressed because the worls is seen through negative schemas.
- Dominated thinking.
- Triggered whenever in siyuations similar to when negative schemas were learnt.
- Beck - schemas are developed in childhood and adolescence.
- Then continue into adulthood.
- Negative framework to view life in pessimistic fashion.
- Negative schemas fuel and are fuelled by cognitive biases - misperceived reality.
- Ineptness schemas
- Expected to fail
- Self blame schemas
- Feel responsible for misfortunes.
- Negative self-evaluation schemas
- Constantly reminded of their worthlessness.
Beck's negative triad - Cognitive bias
- Arbitrary inference
- Conclusions drawn in the absence of sufficient evidence.
- Selective abstraction
- Conclusions drawn from one part of a situation.
- Sweeping conclusions drawn on the basis of a single event.
- Magnification and minimisation
- Exaggerations in evaluation of performance.
Explaining Depression - Ellis' ABC Model
- Depressives mistakenly blame external events for their unhappiness.
- Interpretation of these events that is to blame
- A - Activating event:
- Something happens in the environment around you.
- B - Beliefs:
- You hold a belief about the event or situation.
- C - Consequences:
- Having an emotional response to your belief.
- Activating event triggers an emotion that is seen as true and the consequence is that the individual becomes depressed.
- Negative view abut themselves and no confidence in ability.
- Difference between depressed and non-depressed and how they perceive themselves.
- Explains depression in terms of faulty and irrational thought processes and perceptions.
- Focuses on maladaptive cognitions that underpin malapative behaviours.
Explaining Depression - Boury et al (2001)
- Monitored students negative thoughts with the Beck depression inventory.
- Found that depressives misinterpretnfacts and experiences in a negative fashion, and feel hopeless about the future.
- Supports Beck's cognitive explanation.
Explaining Depression - Mcintosh et al (2000)
- Found no clear separation of negative thoughts - found single one-dimentional negative perception of oneself.
- Three area of triad as separate dimensions is unnecessary.
- + Lots of reserach supporting cognitive vulnerablitlity being linked to onset of depression and depressives attending to negative stimuli.
- + Based upon scientific principles - allowing improvement of model and greater understanding.
- + Higher success in treating depression with cognitive therapies in comparison to therapies from other explainations.
- + Acknowledges other aspects (genes, development and early experiences) can lead to certain thinking patterns that can lead to depression.
- - Less success in explaining and treating bipolar depression - lessening support for model as explaination for depression.
- - Not all depressed peole have distorted view of their own ablitites.
Explaining Depression - Genetic explanation
- Genetic explainations - vulnerability to depression in inherited.
- Research through teins and adportion studies.
- Wender et al. (1986)
- Adpoted children who developed depression were more likely to have depressive parent.
- Suggesting biological factors are more important than genetic explainations.
Explaining Depression - Behavioural explanations
Behavioural explanations - depression as a learnt condition.
- Negative life events incur a decline in positive reinforcement.
- Learned helplessness - cant bring about positive life outcomes.
- Coleman (1986)
- Individuals receiving low rates of positive reinforcement for social behaviours became passive and non-responsive. Leading to depressive moods.
- Provided support for learning theory.
Treating Depression - CBT
CBT stands for Cognitive behavioural therapy
- Main psychological treatment.
- Based on cognitive model - abnormla behaviour as caused by disorder thought process.
- beliefs, expectations and cognitive assessments of self, environment and nature of personal problems affect how individuals perceive themselves and others.
- CBT - identify irrational and maladaptive thought and alter them.
The Department of Health 2001
- REview research papers of treatments for depression.
- CBT is most effective.
Treating Depression - REBT
Rational emotive behavioural therapy
- Developed by Albert Ellis
- "People are not disturbed by things, but rather by their view of things".
- Believed the way people feel is influencedby how they think.
- Saw irrational thoughts as causing emotional distressand behavioural disorders.
- Irrational thoughts cause negative self-statements.
- REBT involves making pateints irrational and negative thoughts more rational and positive.
- Ellis identified 11 basic irrational masturbatory beliefs that are emotionally damaging and can lead to psychologic problems.
- E.g. I must be loved by everyone ... otherwise everyone will hate me.
- therapists aims to challenge patients thinking
- Patients asked to practise positive and optimistic thinking.
- Therapy uses ABC model to record irrational beliefs.
- Reframing negative thoughts - reinterpreting ABC in more positive and logical way
REBT - David et al. (2008)
- 170 patients suffering from depression treated with REBT for 14 weeks
- Better treatment outcomes than those with drug treatments after 6 months.
- REBT is better long-term treatment than drug therapy.
Treating Depression - Evaluation
- CBT is most effective psychological treatment for moderate and severe depression.
- Has few side effects
- CBT - short time period compared to other treatments, more cost effective. Long-term benefits - techniques stop symptoms returning.
- Ethical concerns with CBT - too therapist centred. Can abuse power over patients, patients can become too dependant.
- Unsuitable for patients with difficulty concentrating.
- Not suitable for patients with difficult talking about feelings or those without verba skills.