Psychology OCR Core Studies (12 markers)


Strengths and Limitations of the Cognitive Approac

Point                                       Example                                            Comment

+ Greater understanding           + Baron- Cohen (deficits in T.O.M        + USEFUL (practical

                                               assocaited with Autism                       applications)

+ Scientific methods                + Loftus and Palmer (controlled            + RELIABLE

(Objective)                                lab Experiment)                                  (can be repeated)

- Reductionist                         -  Loftus and Palmer (ignored                - LESS USEFUL

                                                individual differences)                        -Too simplistic

- Scientific methods                  - Savage- Rumbaugh (lab is not          - LOW IN E.V

(Artificial)                                  chimp's natural habitat)                      LESS USEFUL

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Strengths and Limitations of the Individual Differ

Point                                                         Example                           Comment

+ Focuses on DISPOSITIONAL FACTORS   + Thigpen and Cleckley          + USEFUL

   (personality, mental health)                        Different personalities           Practical apps                                           

+ HOLISTIC explanation                              + Thigpen and Cleckley         +  USEFUL

UNIQUE BEHAVIOUR                                  Focused on whole person    

                                                                  (interviews, IQ tests)

- SUBJECTIVE                                           +  Griffiths only considered      - LESS RELIABLE

Relies on self report                                      heuristics (personifying           Info provided by

                                                                   the machine)                          people

- ETHICAL CONCERNS                               + Rosenhan's patients          - PSYCHOLOGICAL

 Labelling behaviour                                      diagnosed as 'schizophrenic'    HARM

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Strengths and Limitations of the Social Approach

Point                                        Example                                   Comment

+ NURTURE side                      + Reicher and Haslam                   + USEFUL

(Social situations, environment)  (Guards were overthrown due to     Practical applications

                                                prison environment)

+ ACTUAL BEHAVIOUR            + Piliavin, NY subway train            + Higher in EV

(Natural environment)                  (natural setting)                          USEFUL

- REDUCTIONSIT                      - Milgram did not consider             - TOO SIMPLISTIC

                                                personality (defiancy)                   LESS USEFUL

- ETHICAL CONCERNS             - Milgram (biting lips...)                 - PSYCHOLOGICAL                                                   Seizures                                       HARM

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Strengths and Limitations of the Physiological App

Point                              Example                         Comment

+ NATURE                        + Sperry (naturally             + USEFUL (Practical applications)

(Biology, genetics)            occuring IV's- all

                                         split- brain)

+ SCIENTIFIC METHODS  + Maguire (MRI scans)       + RELAIBLE (could be repeated)


- REDUCTIONIST              - Sperry (no social factors  - TOO SIMPLISTIC

                                          only split brain)                   LESS USEFUL

- SCIENTIFIC METHODS   - Dement and Kleitman      - LOW IN E.V

ARTIFICIAL SETTING        (Sleep lab)                         LESS USEFUL

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Strengths and Limitations of the Developmental App

Point                                                   Example                                  Comment

+ BOTH NATURE AND NURTURE       + Bandura shows NURTURE           + HOLISTIC

                                                            Aggressive role model=                    MORE USEFUL

                                                            aggressive child

+ COMPREHENSIVE EXPLANATION   + Samuel and Bryant                        +  USEFUL

                                                      Conservation increases with age    PRACTICAL APPS

- Ignores INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES  - Freud's interpretations of Hans    - No explanation about

                                                           during Phallic stage        late developers LESS USEFUL

                                                                                                                                  -ETHICAL CONCERNS                    - Bandura- aggressive role model     - DISREPUTE

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