Psychology Essay Plans- Gender

Essay plans for possible 24 mark questions.

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  • Created on: 15-01-15 16:42

Genes and Hormones

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  • Chromosomes- determine sex, 23 pairs, XX female, XY male, Y=SRY gene, cause embryo develop testes, not present females so develop ovaries instead.
  • Hormones- stimulate growth sex organs e.g. androgens, testosterone boys, oestrogen/progesterone girls, high level male hormone but female result ambiguous genitalia
  • Brain Development- hormones affect brain, female brain social skills/empathy, male brain maths skills/systematic, brain sex theory- testosterone lead male behaviour, stimulate area associated spatial skills, Deady et al- fem. high level salivary testosterone, low maternal personality.
  • CAH and AIS- usually direct link chromsomal and genitalia, CAH- girl exposed high level testosterone in womb cause act masculine, AIS- genetics male, exterior female insensitive to testosterone.
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Genes and Hormones

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  • Dessons et al.- 250 fem prenatal exposure high level androgen still raise fem, 95% content 5% significant dysphoria- other factor not just biological- reductionism
  • Deterministic/Nature- assigned gender must stick due to biology- genes/hormones not social
  • David Reimer- supports- circumcision wrong raised as girl, Brenda originally went well, but unhappy- teased at school, revert to male despite raised girl.
  • Batista Family- mutant gene cause genetic male look fem until puberty, change to male due to high level teststerone- show hormones affect gender development
  • Gender Dysphoria- not fully explain- some bio basis not all cases AIS sometimes result in it
  • Reiner and Gearhart- 16 bio male, 14 raised as girl, at 16, 8 of 14 reassigned as male- support but small sample, only male not generalise
  • Olympics- olympic committee ruled XX must compete fem, XY must compete male, 1991 ruled genetic sex no longer determine entry- gender identify with
  • Generalisability- most research conducted people intersex, different development to typical
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Evolutionary Explanations

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  • Biological approach- gender evolved means survival, allow genes pass on to offspring, exhibit same characteristics- repeated roles
  • ES theory- Baron-Cohen- female empathetic- good childcare, males systematic- hunting strategies, evolutionary advantage- more likely survive reproduce pass on traits
  • Buss (1989, 1992)- mate choice important reproductive success, males- physical attractive, youth- healthy offspring, females- high status, resources- provide for offspring
  • Taylor et al. (2000)- stressful situation females protect, males fight/flight- modern day men defensive, female tend to befriend
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Evolutionary Explanations

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  • Kuhn and Stiner (2006)- Neanderthals died out- not split gender roles, has evolutionary advantage- could be down to climate change at time
  • Deterministic- Genes code behaviour- no choice, igonre free will choose gender role e.g. Kathoey in Thailand- not generalisable to all, inaccurate
  • Cultural Bias- most research typical western cultures- not generalise all cultures e.g. some idenfity 3rd gender, or tribes where gender roles reversed
  • Not Cultural bias- Buss (1989, 1992)- cross cultural support- show theory can be generalised across cultures- increase external validity
  • Wayforth and Dunbar- content analysis personal ads, attractive wanted 44% males, 22% fem, attractive advertiesd 50% fem, 34% males- increase validity of Buss
  • Archer and Lloyd (2002)- non-hunt species still have gender role differences- male not hunt, no evo advantage- why exist
  • Archer and Lloyd (2002)- use one species disprove theory- unrepresentative sample, different species evolve differently- cannot apply all species- lack external validity
  • Reductionist/nature- reduce complex behaviour to natural selection/passing on genes- ignore social factors e.g. abilit learn/internalise gender roles- also support nature over nurture
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Biosocial Approach

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  • Bio-social- consider both biological and social factors- babies innate behaviour cause parents respond certain way lead form gender identity/roles
  • Money and Ehrhardt (1972)- biological sex baby cause interact differently, subject social labelling, steers development- determine gender identity, therefore gender role
  • Smith and Lloyd (1978)- 32 mothers interact with "boy" or "girl" baby- play more vigorous with boy, offered sex typed toyes- sex of baby influence parents interaction with them
  • Eagly and Wood (1999)- Social Role Theory- evolution cause physical differences- psychological emerge due to social assignment- men strong, assigned hunter, develop systematic, women pregnant, assigned homemaker, develop empathy
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Biosocial Approach

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  • Rubin et al.- interview 30 parents, adjectives describe babies- no mesurable differences- consistently boy better coordinated, stronger, more alert than girl
  • Wallen et al. (2008)- male rhesus monkeys prefer play wheeled over plush toys- no social expectation- likely biological tendency amplified by society- Alexander
  • David Reimer- challenge theory- raised as girl but unhappy, revert back to male- biological only not matter how raised- not generalisable
  • Not as reductionist- both bio and social views- less reductionist, such as evo/cognitive- only focus one viewpoint- more accurate?
  • Luxen (2007)- selective pressure on men/fem, create psychological and physical sex differences, contradict SRT- both down to evolution
  • Intersex conditions- some research done people intersex conditions- not generalise to all of population- lack external validity
  • Eagly and Wood- Gender Empowerment Measure- places women higher status, less pronounced labour division had less pronounced differences in mating preference- social roles driving force of psychological sex differences
  • Gangestad et al. (2006)- re-analyse data from Eagly and Wood- found gender equality not related to sex differences- evolutionary theory better?
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Gender Dysphoria

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  • Gender Dysphoria- individual uncomfortable with gender assigned at birth, may want change gender
  • Genetic link- Green (2000) 10 sibling/parent-child pairs, 7 concordant- MZ twins, 3 non-twin brothers, brother-sister, father-daughter, father-son pairs
  • Brain development- Kruijver et al. (2000)- atypical development hypothalamus- post morten mtf show brain pattern identical to normal fem. and vice versa with ftm- male brain female body- AIS also
  • Psychological cause- Freud- normal psychological development identification same-sex parent in phallic stage psycho-sexual development- lack of parent could cause GD- Rekers (1995)- examine over 70 boys with GD- no evidence of biological cause- general absence of appropriate male role models
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Gender Dysphoria

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  • Gordon and Rottery (1992)- 3yr old MZ twin girls- one trans-gender other no problems- not entirely genetic- gender bias not generalisable to rest of the population
  • Swaab et al. (1993)- Mtf smaller brain area- occur in fem due to rapid cell decrease at 4 not occur males
  • Swaab et al. (1993)-Problems both studies- not assume abnormal brain cause GD,  occur by taking on identity
  • Small scale studies-Not cover all cultures, cannot generalise- Individual differences- no studies 100% concordance
  • Jones and Tinker (1982)-14 families interviewed- parents not worry over inappropriate behaviour, some encourage, later discourage- parents influence cause GD- Biological factors not account, methodological issues- interviews not say all wanted to- inaccurate
  • Coates and Pearson (1985)- High incidence separation anxiety in samples boys with GD- restore fantasy tie to absent mother- Not generalisable to whole population- gender bias
  • Males 5x likely- Socially more rigid gender roles- girls tomboys, not accepted boys girly
  • Cause unknown-Research support nature/nurture- thought more biological basis some environment factors- Supports nature more- Most theories tend reductionist- biological or social rather than a mix
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Cognitive Developmental theory

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  • Cognitive theory- Internal thought process, understand/respond stimuli- Based Piagets theory cognitive development- children lack internal logic-3 stages- involve active participation in understanding-self socialisation- selective attention, imitation, participation in particular activities
  • Basic Gender identity- 2-3 yrs- awareness of sex, believe change- identify boy/girl in photo only stereotyped- struggle see girl short hair is girl- say is boy
  • Gender stability- 3-4 yrs- sex stable over time not situation- girl- understand mother in future- see girl dressed as a boy, struggle to see girl- Boy with long hair, struggle see boy
  • Gender Constancy-4-7+ yrs- sex remain constant regardless time/situation- girl short hair is a girl- actively seek role models of same sex to imitate/internalise behaviours and views


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Cognitive Developmental theory

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  • Typical development- not explain atypical- e.g. GD- little clinical value- not resolve issues
  • Deterministc- stages followed in order by alll, no choice/free will- individual difference- some mature faster develop different order
  • Slaby and Frey- 55 children 2-5yrs found stages goo,d children advanced constancy selective attention same sex role model- age range not match- need 7yrs also
  • Ruble and martin/et al.- martin- understand gender role earlier than suggsest- meta analysis, et al.- constancy earlier appear
  • Gender schema- account early ages- reach basic identity  age 2-3yrs- awareness gender/specific behaviours- better explanation
  • Nurture- depend heavily environment/how interpret info- cognitive development- progressive reorg. of mental processes as result bio maturation and environmental expereince- mix
  • Reductionist- not consider other factors, ignore bio/evo- split roles to survive
  • Research accuracy- most research western culture- little cross cultural support- cannot generalise entire population
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Gender Schema theory

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  • Schemas- Bem- based schemas- knowledge past used organise/process new info- also include what means be male/fem.- stereotypes, boy- sport, cars, girl- pink dolls
  • Gender Identity- basic reached 2-3yrs- aware gender/specific behaviour, not need permanent to get initial understanding- differ Kohlberg- 4-7yrs gender constancy
  • Powerful Schema- affect children interpret gender info, actively seek appropriate behaviour for own, igonre not fit
  • Martin and Halverson (1981)- 2 key schemas: in/out group- broad category behaviour/attribute related to boys/girls- ingroup- group person identifies with, outgroup- people outside of ingroup, negatively evaluated by ingroup, own sex- relate to in-group/ own gender
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Gender Schema theory

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  • Typical development- not explain atypical e.g. GD, no clinical value- not resolve issues
  • Reductionist- gender form to schemas/interact environment- not consider bio/evo theories- gender roles innate for survival
  • Martin and Little- children only need gender identity for preferece/knowledge influence- support
  • Eisenberg- children choose toys on preferred activity not stereotypes- contradict
  • Nurture- schemas develop due to surroundings, how interpret info over genes etc..
  • Free will/determinism- deterministic- follow schemas develop gender, free will- schemas differ people, free will what in schema
  • Bussey and Bandura (1992)- 3-4yrs act gender stereotypical way to inappropriate behaviour, despite many not have identity/constancy- support
  • Kohlberg's theory- gender roles 3 stages- exist Slaby and Frey, but ages wrong- accounted for by schema theory- better explanation?
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Social influences

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  • SLT- Bandura- explain social influence take effect- learn indireclty how behave observe behaviours of others/imitate them- aquire gender roles by observation role models reinforced/punished for behaviour- want same reward
  • Parents- See parents rewarded/punished for behaviour so either copy or not depending if punished- From birth children exposed ideas male/female, percieved differently from birth by parents- Langolis et al. And Downs- parents reward same-sex toy play through attention/interaction punish play cross-sex toy through teasing- fathers more punishing older boys
  • Peers/Schools- Way respond to other children act inappropriately, girls reward/punish, boys punish- Schools influence as spend lots time there- contintue as get older to occupational choice- Dewitt- surveyed 116 school girls age 11-14 evidence under pressure conform to gender roles in particular looks and maths/science unsuitable for girls
  • Media- Adverts for boys- dark, violent, adverts for girls- flowers, passive- focus on these things children copy behaviour via SLT as want same rewards as people on TV- males/females portrayed gender stereotypical ways- men dominant, aggressive, independent, women, submissive, nurturing, dependent- In music men musicians, women singers
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Social influences

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  • Reed (1998)-Children willing transgress gender roles if encouraged to do so by same-sex peers- females significantly more ready to transgress than males- reflect rigid male gender roles- more punishment than rewards for behaviours- fathers more punishing
  • Bee- Differences in TV ads noticed by 6yr olds- Gender role portraylas influential for young children as age where gender roles are developing
  • Rubin et al.-Parents describe babies, minimal differences sons still strong, active, coordinated but daughters beautiful, little, delicate, weak- From birth parents have expecation of child based on sex
  • Cultural bias- Studies conducted mostly western culture- some cultures stricter parents, not as accepting of deviance- Some cultures not everyone at school/have easy access to media
  • Chan- In kindergartens traditional gender role held/acted by teacher/children
  • Johnston and Ettema (1982)- Showed 12yr olds episodes of TV show designed counter gender stereotypes, both genders reduced sterotyping- media used in positve light
  • Lytton and Romney-Meta analysis- 172 studies only significant effect was encouragement of sex-typed activities from parents- this effect also not that strong- size of study more impressive
  • Reductionist-Focus on social influence no consideration of innate behaviour in genes/hormones that has occurred due to evolution/survival
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Cultural influences

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  • Culture- “a set of cognitions and practices that identify a specific social group and distinguish it from others”- Hogg and Vaughn (2005)- Gross (1999)- culture 2 main aspects:- Objective- aspects can be seen- buildings, music, food- Subjective- beliefs, values, social norms- regulate behaviour in groups

  • Nature/Nurture- If same gender traits found in all cultures- evidence nature- If different gender traits exist- evidence for nurture- Many factors could have an effect on gender roles- politics, religion, socio-economic status, age, geography

  • Margaret Mead- One first people look into gender roles across cultures- studied 3 tribes in Papua New Guinea- Araphesh- co-operative- little distinction- both share domestic responsibility, some work done by women- naturally strong forehead for carrying weight- Mundugamur- hostile, little distinction- children disregarded, infanticide common- Tchambuli- women aggressive- support family, man dress up, gossip, shop- all believe determined by biology- natural
  • 3rd/4th genders- Some cultures accept third even fourth gender- Hijras in India- transgender recognised on official documents as a separate third gender- Kathoeys in Thailand- widley accepted as a third gender- some models, actresses etc..- All socially constructed, some cultures gender not biology
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Cultural influences

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  • Tager and Good (2005)- Italian and American men complete conformity to masculine norms inventory- italians score lower 9 of 11, north/central lower south, lower Americans
  • Western perspective- Cannot generalise- ethnocentric- value impose other cultures
  • Translations- Things lost in translation- interpret in way needed to fit research- may confound results
  • Observer effects- Although observed long time- demand characteristics- cause behaviour to change- could wear off, observe without knowing ethical issue- consent not given
  • Culture universal- Certain characteristics of gender roles similar irrespective of culture- more likely biological basis- Better understand of nature/nurture by studying cultures
  • Acculturation- Cultural modification of individual/group/people by adapting to or borrowing traits from another culture
  • Van der Vijver (2007)- 1st gen. Immigrants to Netherlands from Turkey, Morocco, Surinam traditional gender roles, 2nd gen- moved towards norms of host country
  • Tiggerman and Ruutel (2004)- 394 Australians, 415 Estonian students complete sex role concerns inventory- significant national differences on traditional gender role aspirations- Estonians rate mother higher than Australians, no difference on professional success
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