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Characteristics of the Defendant

In an ideal world, a jury would be made up of unbiased and unprejudiced people, intelligent enough to comprehend
the evidence and with the necessary verbal and social skills to contribute to discussion. In the real world however,
research has shown that jury…

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made sexual remarks, attempted to kiss and fondle her and described in detail sexual acts he would like to
enjoy sharing with her.

Secondly, participants were shown photographs of the defendant (the employer) and the plaintiff (the
secretary) and asked to decide whether the defendant was guilty or innocent. Participants…

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Skolnick and Shaw (1997) used 213 students in a mock trial and varied the defendant's race and celebrity status.
Celebrity status did not affect the verdict but race did.

Juror's race Defendant's race Guilty verdict Not guilty verdict
Black Black 19% 33%

Black White 34% 15%

White Black 19% 29%…

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In a real case, the actual jury would spend much longer deliberating than in a study ­ and would be exposed to
more evidence in different degrees on different days as the case progressed.
A researcher in a study wouldn't be able to provide the full amount of evidence to…

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Lawyers will be careful about when key witnesses or evidence are presented, ideally at the beginning and end
of the trial.

Inadmissible Evidence:

A study by Broeder (1959) was conducted in Chicago to test the effect of information being ruled inadmissible by
a judge.

What does `inadmissible' mean?

Not to…

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ROSS et al.'s study, also has good ecological validity as it was based on a real case, filmed in a real courtroom and
used legal professionals as actors. However, participants watched this trial on video and some watched video of
someone giving evidence on video which may have affected not…

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In your opinion, are members of the jury more likely to be swayed by Informational Social Influence or
Normative Social Influence? Why?

ISI ­ it is important to get the decision right, and you may think the others have a greater understanding of the
case than you.

NSI ­ you…

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Find out about the real life case of Sally Clark who was wrongfully convicted of killing her two children.
Explain how the jury was influenced by statistics in this case.

An expert (Professor Sir Roy Meadow) suggested that there was a one in a 73 million chance of two children,…

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Discuss (or critically consider) the treatment and punishment of crime.

All questions will be worth 25 marks. You will have about 35 minutes to write this essay. You will have a couple of
minutes to read and possibly amend your answer.
The 25 marks are divided into 10 marks for…

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an effect. It may also be worthy of note that trial by jury is, on the whole, a fair way of making these important
Try to ensure that you essay flows and that it isn't just a series of brief, unconnected paragraphs. You will not get
full marks unless…


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