Psychology Cognitive

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  • Created by: Lou
  • Created on: 09-01-13 14:05


Duration - how long the memory lasts

Capacity - how much can be held in the memory

Encoding - transferring information into code


  • limited capacity
  • limited duration


  • unlimited capacity
  • permanent
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Models of Memory

Atkinson and Shiffrin Model

 Multi-Store Model

  • suggested memory is a process
  • the information we learn passes through stores during the journey from sensory memory  (SM) to long term memory (LTM)
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Models of Memory

Multi-Store Model


  • flashed 12 letters onto a screen for a second
  • on average people could remember 4/5 letters
  • association of a sound to each row helped increase recall
  • suggesting that participants saw 9-10 od the letters but image faded from sensory memory before the recall could take place

+ lab experiment high control

- artificial

Evidence for sensory memory


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Models of Memory

Multi-Store Model

Peterson and Peterson

  • they were shown nonsense trigrams which they were asked to recall after either 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 or 18 seconds
  • within this pause they were asked to count backwards which was an interference task to stop from rehearsing
  • after three seconds participants could recall 80% of trigrams correctly. After 18 seconds only 10% were recalled correctly
  • when rehearsal is prevented very little can stay in the STM for longer than 18 seconds

+ lab high control

- aftificial lacks ecological validity

Investigating the duration of STM



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Models of Memory

Multi-Store Model

Bahrick et al

  • list names of ex-classmates (free recall test)
  • then photo-recognition test
  • or name-recognition test
  • 15 years - 90% names and faces, 60% accurate on free recall
  • 30 years - free recall declined to about 30% accuracy
  • 48 years - name recognition was about 80% accurate and photo recognition about 40% accurate

+ high ecological validity (field experiment)

- less control

investigating VLTM in a natural setting

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Models of Memory

Baddeley and Hitch

Working Memory Model

  • central executive
    • described as attention
  • articulatory-phonological loop
    • speech based information
    • phonological store
    • articulatory
  • visuo-spatial sketchpad
    • visual and spatial information

- central executive is vague with no research, simply suggest is to do with attention

+ explains semantic remembering

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Memory Improvement

Method of loci

  • put what you are trying to remember into a familiar place such as a home, and as you imagine walking *
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