Psychology B AS Unit 1. Key terms for Approaches

All the key terms needed for this unit :)

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  • Created by: Vicky
  • Created on: 06-01-12 20:33

Chromosomes

the part of a cell that contains genetic information.

Part of the biological approach.

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Selective Breeding

the artificial selection of male and female animals for a particular trait to be bred, to pass on that specific trait through genes

Part of the biological approach.

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Law of Effect

Thorndike- increasing the chance of a behaviour being repeated by reinforcements, or decreasing it by punishment.

Part of behaviourist approach

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Operant Conditioning

learning through positive/negative reinforcement or punishment, as used by Skinner and his Rat Box.

Part of the behaviourist approach

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Classical conditioning

learning due to the introduction of a controlled stimulus to produce a desired behaviour or a controlled response.

As seen in Pavlov's dogs.

Part of the behaviourist approach.

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Vicarious Reinforcement

learning indirectly from an observation of another persons experience.

Part of social learning theory

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Mediating Cognitive factors

Mental processes that lie between stimulus and response.

Part of the social learning theory.

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Information Processing Model

A model in cognitive psychology comparing human thought to computers with an encode, store and output system.

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Computational Model

A cognitive model, similar to the information processing, which compares humans to computers but as an effect of goals, plans and other motivations.

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Connectionist Model

A cognitive model using links between neurons to demonstrate learnt behaviour

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Free Association

a psychoanalysis method where patients are encouraged to talk freely about concerns to a therapist for them to analyse any unconscious conflict.

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ID

One of Freud's three structures of personality. It is the pleasure principle, for selfish desires.

Part of the psychodynamic approach

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Superego

One of Freud's three structures of personality. It forms during the phallic stage and is where we learn and remember our parent values and social standards. It is the morality principle.

Part of the psychodynamic approach.

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Conditions of worth

a child will only receive praise and love from its parents if it behaves in ways considered socially acceptable.

Part of the humanistic approach

 

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Self - Actualisation

the motive to realise one's full potential

Part of the humanistic approach

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