As psychology, Everything.

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PSY 1 - APPROACHES IN PSYCHOLOGY
PREPARATION & REVISION
The aim of this handbook is to help you prepare and revise for the unit
named PSY1 in your A Level course in Psychology. It is not intended to
take the place of your class work nor of the full textbook covering the
course, but it should help you revise and prepare for the examination.
Contents
PSY 1 WHAT YOU NEED TO STUDY 02
UNDERSTANDING HOW THE QUESTIONS
ARE STRUCTURED and HOW TO ANSWER THEM 03
THE BEHAVIOURIST APPROACH
ASSUMPTIONS 04
STRENGTHS & WEAKNESSES 05
THERAPY SYSTEMATIC DESENSITISATION 06
THERAPY AVERSION THERAPY 07
THEORY SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY OF AGGRESSION 08
THE BIOLOGICAL APPROACH
ASSUMPTIONS 09
STRENGTHS & WEAKNESSES 10
THERAPY PSYCHOSURGERY 11
THERAPY CHEMOTHERAPY 12
THEORY SELYE'S GENERAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME 13
THE PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACH
ASSUMPTIONS 14
STRENGTHS & WEAKNESSES 15
THERAPY THE TALKING CURE 16
THERAPY DREAM ANALYSIS 17
THEORY THEORY OF PERSONALITY 18
THE COGNITIVE APPROACH
ASSUMPTIONS 19
STRENGTHS & WEAKNESSES 20
THERAPY RATIONAL EMOTIVE THERAPY 21
THERAPY COGNITIVE BEHAVIOURAL THERAPY 22
THEORY ATTRIBUTION THEORY 23
COMPARE AND CONTRAST THE APPROACHES 24
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PSY 1 - WHAT YOU NEED TO STUDY
In this unit, we will be studying four major approaches in Psychology:
1) The BIOLOGICAL approach
2) The BEHAVIOURIST approach
3) The PSYCHODYNAMIC approach
4) The COGNITIVE approach
You will learn how to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the ASSUMPTIONS
of each approach ­ for example, the biological approach assumes that behaviour has a
biological/physical/physiological case. You will learn how each approach has been applied
to a THEORY and a THERAPY.…read more

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Outline the main assumptions of each approach.
Describe how each approach can be applied in one form of therapy.
Describe how each approach can be applied to one theory.
Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of each approach.
Compare and contrast the four approaches in terms of similarities and/or
differences.…read more

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UNDERSTANDING HOW THE QUESTIONS
ARE STRUCTURED and HOW TO ANSWER THEM
There are three kinds of questions in the examination, and the first word
or words of each question make it clear what is required in your answer.
The questions are
1. Outline/Describe the main assumptions of the ...approach. (12)
2. Outline/Describe how the ... approach has been applied in ... theory. (12)
3. Outline/Describe how the ...approach has been applied in ... therapy. (12)
4. Evaluate/Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the... approach.…read more

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THE BEHAVIOURIST APPROACH
ASSUMPTIONS
An examination essential
Outline the main assumptions of the behaviourist approach.
The behaviourist approach assumes that all behaviour, both normal and abnormal, is learned
through the processes of classical and operant conditioning. In other words, we learn by
interacting with the world around us, especially by the ways our environment operates on us.
Classical conditioning is `learning through association'.…read more

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THE BEHAVIOURIST APPROACH
STRENGTHS & WEAKNESSES
An examination essential
Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the behaviourist approach.
One of the main strengths of the behaviourist approach is that it focuses only on behaviour
that can be observed and manipulated. Therefore, this approach has proved very useful in
experiments under laboratory conditions where behaviour can be observed and
manipulated, especially in relation to the IV (independent variable) and the DV (dependent
variable).…read more

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A BEHAVIOURIST THERAPY
An examination essential
Describe how the behaviourist approach has been applied in one form
of therapy in psychology.
SYSTEMATIC DESENSITISATION
According to classical conditioning theory, a phobia is an automatic reflex acquired as a
response to a nondangerous stimulus. For example, Little Albert (Watson & Rayner,
1920) acquired his fear of rats when he `learned' to associate the sight of a white rat with
the fright of a hammer crashing down on a steel bar just behind his head.…read more

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A BEHAVIOURIST THERAPY
AVERSION THERAPY
An examination essential
Describe how the behaviourist approach has been applied in one form
of therapy in psychology, e.g. Aversion Therapy
Aversion therapy is a form of psychological therapy that uses conditioning procedures to
break the association between undesirable behaviour and a pleasant sensation. The patient is
exposed to the undesirable stimulus while at the same time being subjected to some form of
discomfort. This conditioning is aimed at causing the patient to associate the undesirable
stimulus with unpleasant sensations.…read more

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