Abnormality key words

Abnormality
A psychological condition or behaviour that departs from the norm or is harmful and distressing to the individual or those around them. Abnormal behaviours are usually those that violate society's ideas of what is an appropriate level of functioning
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Cultural relativism
The view that behaviour cannot be judged properly unless it is viewed in the context of the culture in which it originates
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Deviation from social norms
Abnormal behaviour is seen as a deviation from implicit rules about how one ought to behave. Anything that violates these rules is seen as abnormal.
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Failure to function adequately
By using practical criteria of adequate functioning, mentally healthy people are judged as being able to operate within certain acceptable limits. If abnormal behavior interferes with daily functioning, it is, according to these criteria be abnormal
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Deviation from ideal mental health
Abnormality is seen as deviating from an ideal of positive mental health. Ideal mental health would include a positive attitude towards the self, resistance to stress and an accurate perception of reality
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Psychopathology
The scientific study of psychological disorders, their nature and causes
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Biological approach
The view that behaviour can all be explained in terms of biological mechanisms such as hormones, neurotransmitters, brain activity and influences inherited via genes.
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Psychodynamic approach
An approach that explains the dynamics of behaviour-what motivates a person. Freud suggested that unconscious forces and early experience are the prime motivators
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Behavioural approach
All behaviour is learned through experience as a result of classical or operant conditioning.
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Cognitive approach
The key influence on behaviour is how and individual thinks about the situation
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Diathesis-stress model
A belief that in the case of certain disorders individuals inherit a susceptibility for the disorder which develops only if the individual is exposed to difficult environmental conditions.
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Genes
A unit of inheritance which forms part of a chromosome. Genes conrtol the characteristics that we inherit from parents
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Genetic inheritance
The reception of genetically coded traits through transmission from parent to offspring.
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Id
The irrational, primitive part of personality, it is present at birth and demands immediate satisfaction
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Ego
The conscious, rational part of the personality.
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Superego
Embodies our conscience and sense of right and wrong
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Ego defences
Unconscious methods such as repression and displacement, which helps the ego deal with feelings of anxiety
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Dopamine and Serotonin
Both neurotransmitters. Dopamine linked to schizophrenia. Low levels of serotonin linked to depression and high levels linked to anxiety
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ECT
Administration of a controlled electrical current through electrodes places on the scalp, that induces a convulsive seizure which can be effective in relieving an episode of major depression
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Psychoanalysis
A form of psychotherapy originally developed by Freud intended to help patients become aware of long repressed feelings.
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Systematic desensitisation
A form of CBT used to treat phobias and other behavioural problems e.g anxiety. Gradual exposure to the problem in relaxed conditions.
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REBT
A CBT that helps people change dysfunctional emotions and behaviours by making them aware of self defeating beliefs and then modifying these in order to remove the unwanted states
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The view that behaviour cannot be judged properly unless it is viewed in the context of the culture in which it originates

Back

Cultural relativism

Card 3

Front

Abnormal behaviour is seen as a deviation from implicit rules about how one ought to behave. Anything that violates these rules is seen as abnormal.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

By using practical criteria of adequate functioning, mentally healthy people are judged as being able to operate within certain acceptable limits. If abnormal behavior interferes with daily functioning, it is, according to these criteria be abnormal

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Abnormality is seen as deviating from an ideal of positive mental health. Ideal mental health would include a positive attitude towards the self, resistance to stress and an accurate perception of reality

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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