AO1 1 - Cognitive explanation
- Cognitive, starts biologically but further symptoms emerge when people try to make sense of hallucinations
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AO1 2 - Cognitive
- Schizophrenics turn to others to confirm the validity of what they are experiencing.
- Other people fail to confirm the reality, so the SZ comes to belief the others must be hiding the truth.
- Reject feedback and develop delusional beliefs that they are being manipulated and persecuted by others.
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AO1 3 - Life events
- stressful life events cause the onset of SZ.
- Act as a trigger
- May have a biological predisposition for SZ but only those with the predisposition will develop SZ
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AO1 4 - Brown and Birley
- prior to a schizophrenic episode, patients reported twice as many stressful life events compared to a healthy control group.
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AO2 1 - Cognitive support
- Meyer Linderberg - found a link between excess levels of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex and dysfunctions of working memory.
- Working memory dysfunction is associated with cognitive disorganisation typically found in schizophrenics.
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AO2 2 - Real world applications
- Basis for a form of therapy
- Yellowlees et al have trialled a machine that can deliver ' virtual' auditory and visual hallucinations.
- Show SZ that their hallucinations are not real.
- no evidence that this will provide a successful treatment.
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AO2 3 - Brown and Birley evaluation
- retrospective study where data is collected after events have occured.
- Recall would be negtively affected ny events surrounding the onset of SZ - unreliable.
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AO2 4 - Prospective studies
- prospective studies are preferable - data collected after event.
- Hirsch et al - followed 71 SZ patients over a 48 week period.
- life events made a significant contribution in the 12 months preceding the relapse rather than having a more concentrated effect in the period just prior to the episode.
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AO2 5 - Life stressors weakness
- not all research supports evidence of life stressors.
- Van Os et al - no link between life events and the onset of SZ.
- patients who had experienced a major life event went on to have lower incidence of relapse rather than an increased risk.
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AO2 6 - Correlational
- cannot infer a causal relationship
- early symptoms may have been the cause of the life events.
- life events may be a consequence rather than a cause.
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AO2 7 - Biological explanations
- biological explanations have better research support.
- large body of evidence
- Gottesman - greater degree of relatedness greater risk of SZ
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