Psychological Disorders

  • Created by: Em
  • Created on: 10-05-16 12:26

Anxiety Disorders

  • Persistent feelings of tension, distress, nervousness or fear a lot of the time for no apparent reason
  • Anxiety is severe enough to interfere with their functioning and makes it difficult to cope with the normal demands of everyday life 
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Anxiety Disorders

Panic Disorder

  • Reoccuring, unexpected panic attacks involving a surge of fear or anxiety
  • Panic attacks may last a few minutes but repeated incidents may occur
  • Panic attacks occur suddenly for no reason in situations where people shouldn't be afraid (e.g. when relaxing, gardening, shopping etc)
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Anxiety Disorders

Generalised Anxiety Disorder

  • Persisent, excessive or unrealistic anxiety and worry
  • Adults tend to worry about everyday life circumstances such as:
    • Health
    • Finances
    • Job 
    • Child's security
    • Minor matters (e.g. chores)
  • Children tend to worry about their abilities and how well they can do things
  • People find it difficult to prevent worrisome thoughts from coming to mind which distracts them or interferes with their life
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Anxiety Disorders

Social Anxiety Disorder (Social Phobia)

  • Excessive, persistent, unreasonable fear of social situations or performance situations
  • Usually due to the fear of being negatively judged by others and the fear of behaving in a way that is embarassing 
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Anxiety Disorders

Specific Phobia 

  • Excessive, persistent, unreasonable fear of a specific object or situation (e.g. flying, heights, spiders, seeing blood etc)
  • Phobic object or situation triggers fear or anxiety and is avoided intentionally (or endured with intense anxiety if avoidance is impossible)
  • Level of anxiety is out of proportion to the actual danger posed and causes significant distress
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Anxiety Disorders


  • Excessive, persistent, unreasonable fear of a situation where something bad may happpen and escape is difficult or no one is there to help
  • Situations may include
    • Using public transport
    • Being in an open space (e.g. a car park)
    • Being in an enclosed space (e.g. a lift)
    • Being outside of the home
  • Situations are avoided or endured with a friend or with fear/anxiety if avoidance is impossible
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Psychotic Disorders


  • Brain disorder where there are persisten symptoms of psychosis (disturbances or disorganisation of thoughts, feelings, perceptions and behaviour) 
  • People who have an altered perception of reality may:
    • Hear or see things that don't exist
    • Hold beliefs that are odd or not true
    • Speak in strange or confusing ways
    • Believe others are trying to hurt them or are watching them 
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Psychotic Disorders

Delusional Disorder

  • Persisten delusions (either one or more) such as:
    • Persecutions (being cheated or spied on etc)
    • Believing a partner is unfaithful
    • Believing a loved one has a serious medical condition (e.g. cancer)
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Psychotic Disorders

Brief Psychotic Disorder

  • Experiences of one or more psychotic symptoms for at least a day and less than 1 month then symptoms disappear
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Psychotic Disorders

Schizoaffective Disorder

  • A mixture of symptoms of schizophrenia and mood disorders
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Psychotic Disorders

Substance or Medication-induced Psychotic Disorder

  • Persisten hallucinations or delusions due to physiological effects of excessie substance use or withdrawal from the use of drugs or sniffing
  • These drugs include alcohol and medication
  • Symtoms may be temporary in some and permanent in others and may persist 
  • The drug triggers the onset of recurrent, lifelong and more serious psychotic disorders (e.g. schizophrenia)
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Mood Disorders

  • The term mood disorder is used to describe a mental disorder involving a disabling disturbance in emotional state
  • The disturbace in emotional state can result in extreme sadness of depression to extreme elation of mania
  • Mood is sometimes referred to as a non-specific emotional state because we hae no idea what has caused a mood
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Mood Disorders

Major Depressive Disorder

  • A depressed mood for t least 2 weeks during which the person feels sad or miserable most of the time or has lost interest/pleasure in most of the usual activities nearly everyday
  • Four or more symptoms occur nearly everyday:
    • Tiredness
    • Feeling irritable
    • Loss/change of appetite
    • Weight loss/gain etc
  • There may be recurrent thoughts of death or suicide as well as feelings of worthlessness and excessive guilt
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Mood Disorders

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder 

  • Depressive and other mood or physical symptoms before the onset of the menstrual cycle
  • These symptoms include: 
    • Mood swings
    • Decreased interest in usual activities
    • Increased irritability 
    • Increased feelings of anger
    • Sleep problems etc
  • These symptoms improve when menstruation starts and gradually decreases
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Mood Disorders

Bipolar I Disorder

  • Characterised by episodes of major depression and mania

Bipolar II Disorder 

  • Characterised between fluctuations between episodes of major depression and hypomania (a milder form of mania)
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Mood Disorders

Cyclothymia (Cyclothymic Disorder)

  • Experience periods of manic symptoms and depressive symptoms over at least 2 years
  • Involves recurring mood changes without experiencing a manic or depressive episode
  • The duration of these symproms are shorter, less severe and not as regular as major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder
  • Often described as a mild form of bipolar disorder
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