The family is key to the the first steps of socialisation. Children become SOCIAL BEINGS through builiding close relationships.
As this process develops, children learn new skills such as love, sadness and humour and how to apply them as appropriate responses. EMPATHY is the main factor gained from this, so that children becomes self aware which leads to functioning well within society.
E.G. Oxanna the feral girl
Behave like their animal foster parents, are agressive, can not talk, walk on all fours
Socialisation & Identity...
Baumiester- Socilisation gives children an identity...children learn by imitation
PRIMARY SOCILISATION CONTINUED...
Socilisation & Social control...
Morgan- a lot of socilisation is gained by encouraging conformity
Parents often use sanctions e.g. positive and negative sanctions to reinforce socially accepted behaviours.These encourage a conscience development and is seen succesfull when the child realised the costs in terms of parental punishment.
Socilisation means knowing your gender identity as well. Durkin- children know their sex between the age of 2 and 3 years.
Functionalists- See the family as a 'personality factory' where the child is a 'blank state' at first then mould into society through the function of parents, school, etc. Value consensus is established.
Marxist- Critique functionalist view. Zartskey says family is used by the capitalists too instill obideant behaviour so they can be exploited by the ruling class in later life and this is natural.
^This is instutions to function in wider society, it never stops^
Functionalist view of education as an agent of secondary socilisation- Ed is essential as they transmit cultural values- producting in CONSENSUS. Durkheim said subjects like history, religion, language link indivdual to society.
Parsons said main function of education is to bridge social barriers between family and outer society. The transmission of achievement, competition nd education is essential for society.
Marxist view on education as an agent of secondary socilisation- Althusser said education is dominated by the hidden curriculum which is a ruling class ideology encouraging capitalism. Claimed that when subjects like sociology, politics introduced they were undermined because it encouraged rebellion.
Marxists also say schools socilise into obiedience and hierachy. WC students made to see themselves as failing.
Functionalist & Marxist view of religion as as sec
Functionalist- Durkheim said that the main function of religion is to socilise society's members into value consensus by instilling sacred qualities which become 'moral codes'.
These codes regulate our behaviour.
Marxist- 'Religion is the opium of the masses'.
Religion serves interests of ruling class.
It promotes ideas of material sucess is a sign of gods favour and poverty is caused by sin and immorality.
Religious teaching show blind faith to distract the poor from their rubbish lives. Religion also makes exploitation, poverty etc bereable because it promises a rewarding afterlife.
Mass media as an agent of socilisation & Marxist
Media provides us with influence over values and norms and provides us with role models so we can follow them in order to be seen as socially acceptable.
Marxist critique- Mass media is responsible for mass cullture. Marsh & Keating say pop culture is false culture made to keep everyone happy. It encourages things you dont really need, so you spend money on pointless things. It supports capitalism.
In defence of the media, people see it in different ways. Not everyone looks at it from the same angle.
Peer Group and critique of socilisation
Peer group- people of the similar status who come into reguluar contact with eachother through social or work related basis. They have a strong influence over teenagers beause they want independance etc
Peer pressure- Teenagers feel a lot of pressure to fit in. Some feel the need to be 'deviant' and friendship networks put strain on them.
Peer group & young adulthood- Heath said friendship networks are becoming more important as agents of socilisation in the period known as 'young adulthood' and is seen by moving around a lot.
Occupational peer group- Work also teaches us the 'tricks of the trade' and we are influenced by our workplace.
Critique of socilisation- Socilisation isn't all straightfoward. Postman says childhood is a lot different than it was 50 years ago, shorter even so children do not get the full insight into socilisation.
Palmer- Children spend too much time online instead of with the family, losing moral codes.