Poetry pre-1900 Anthology

  • Created by: Isabella
  • Created on: 23-04-13 20:02

Love That Doth Reign and Live Within My Heart by H

Howard- Father of English Sonnets with Thomas Wyatt

Sonnet form

ABAB rhyme scheme

Unrequited love

Translation of Petrachan sonnet, which is about Petrachan's love Laura

The Octave- about him being rejected

The Sestet- Not being able to tell her

Lexis of war imagery- "captive/clad/arms/fought/banner/coward/taketh his flight

"she taught me love and pain"- she helped him to love, but also the pain of rejection


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New Prince, New Pomp by Robert Southwell

Describing The Navtivity

Religious crisis- Catholicism/Protestants

Southwell- telling those disillusioned with Catholic "fuss" to look at Baby Jesus' plain and simple birth

Emotionally charged poem

Stanza 7- connecting the simple barn items with royalty "this stable is a prince's court"

Lexis of royal/wealthy words- "orient pearl/prince/chair of state/pomp/plate/royal liveries/king"

Imperative tone= "behold/despise him not/weigh not his mother's poor attire/with joy approach/do homage/highly prize his poem"

Metaphor for Jesus= "an orient pearl is often found in the depth of dirty mire"

New Prince, New Pomp= Fuss with royalty and riches

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Sonnet CXXX by William Shakespeare

Shakespearen sonnet

ABAB rhyme scheme

Talking about his mistress- the Dark Lady

Describing her faults and staying he still loves her for them- "If hair be wires, then wires grow on her head"

Separated into 3 quatraines, with a couplet at the end

Quatrain One: About colours

Q3: About smells

"she walks treads on the ground"- she is not an angel/goddess, she is normal

Picks up traditional love poems and changes them

Snow White image= red/white/black, these are used to describe SW's beauty, this is used to describe her flaws

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Sonnet: Batter My Heart by John Donne

Metaphysical poet

"Batter"- imagery of hardships

"breake, blow, burn"- quick, bam,bam, bam beat

ABBA rhyme scheme- nearly

The rhyme scheme breaks down as he does

His enemy- his sins

Towards the end of poem- breakdown

Guilt of sins overtake him

Feels as if he is promised to Satan, because he was previously a womansier and how he had treated women

Lexis of violence words- "batter/knocke/bend/breake/blow/burne/viceroy/captiv'd/imprison"

Does not know how to connect with God- asks God to **** him

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To Virgins, To Make Much of Time by Robert Herrick

Directly appealing to virgins to have sex

Protestant/Catholic war, uncertain times of war

Metaphysical poet

Rosebuds- precious, but he is pointing that it will eventuall wilt and die, like humans

Excessive endstopping- everything is going to come to an end

Sense of time stopping throughout the poem

Carpe diem- "seize the day" sense

And/And/But/Then- strong persuasive sense to get women to live each day as its last

Lexical set of time- "Old Time/To-morrow/sooner/nearer/age/spent/times/time/tarry

Sex/Love is only implied, never mentioned

Rhyme scheme- ABAB

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To My Dear and Loving Husband by Anne Bradstreet

Tribute to her husband- Simon Bradstreet

Metaphysical poet

AABB rhyme scheme

The strong couplets used reflects the strong relationship that they have (couple)

"If ever two were one, then surely we"- strong, declarative opening

Juxtaposition of earth and heaven- "the heavens/persever"

"we may live ever"- their love will go on forever, even after death

Devout Puritan

Lexical set of wealth- "prize/gold/riches", saying that their love is better then wealth

"we live"- death cannot part them

The use of enjambent after gold- love has no bounds

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The Mower Against Gardens by Andrew Marvell

Mower= cuts down, destroys gardens

Just before Age of Enlightment

Everything was structured and manipulated

Roses were being bought in from abroad

Compare with piece on GM Foods

Marvell, Puritan, likes simplicity and things growing natural- the excessive use of endstopping reflects his hard line puritan

Lexis of words associated with seduction= "luxurious/seduce/luscious/perfumes/wild the tamme/Seraglio/eunuchs/sex"- referring to what was going on socially, not happy about it due to his religious beliefs

"No plant now knows the stock from which it came"- everything is so mixed up that the plants do not know its source

The garden is a metaphor for what he believes is the fall of man

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A Satirical Elegy on The Death of the Late Famous

Satire= joke

Elegy= tributes in poetic form

Restorian- George III 

UK becoming more democratic, start of the Industrial Revolution

Swift, a soldier

Sarcastic about the death about well respected general

Feels angry that the general died in bed, whilst his friends died in battle

AABB rhyme scheme, reflecting the Age of Enlightment

"He burnt his candle to the snuff/He left behind so great a stink"- Metaphor for his selfishness, right until the way

"True to his profit and pride"- why people don't like him- he made a profit the war

"Turn'd to that dirt from whence he sprung"- bibical reference, back to earth, made from earth

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I Wandered Lonely As A Cloud by William Wordsworth

Romantic poet- the sublime and obbessed with nature

Referring to himself as a cloud- he is one with nature

Written after walk with his very close sister, Dorothy, and they saw daffodils

Iambic Tetrameter- four beat, trance like

The walk and daffodils, happy memories for him= "in a vacant or in pensive mood/they flash upon that inward eye/and then my heart with pleasure fills"

The use of 1st person reflects his lonilness (title- LONELY) and his connection with nature

Rain mentioned in Dorothy's account- no rain, as he wants a happy poem

Personification of daffodils- "tossing their heads in a sprightly dance"- sounds exciting and optimistic

Happy personifcation of dancing- "dancing in the breeze/sprightly dance/waves beside them danced"

Optimistic tone of poem

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Kubla Khan by Samuel Taylor Coleridge

Romantic poet

Kubla Khan- Mongol leader

Reading about him under the influence of opium

Then dreamt- and wrote the poem about his dream

Describes KK's plan to build a luxurious poem

Sensual imagery- "an incense bearing tree", helps to bring the story to life

Enjambent- like the beat of the river

Xandau- name of the palace he built

ABBA rhyme scheme- not rigid, however, hetic scheme- reflecting his opium influence

1/2 rhymes used

"A savage place!as holy and enchanted!"- this line and onwards the poem becomes Gothic

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She Walks in Beauty by George Gordon Byron

Famous romantic poet

Well known womansier

In love with lady- Mrs Wilmot Horton

"like the night"- she has to wear the black dress of mourning

He only wants her, can't have her as she is a widow

"so soft, so calm, yet eloquent"- admiring her many layers

ABAB rhyme scheme

Use of colon for endstopping, "Meet in her aspect and her eyes:"- the reader needs a breath as does he after seeing her

Use of sibliance- "serenly sweet"- gives a sweet romantic sound

Lexis of dark/light: "dark/bright/light/day/shade/ray/lightens"- he lights up her world

There is no mention of gown and walking= seeking larger than mere physical despriction

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Ozymandias by Percy Bysshe Shelley

Romantic poet (famous along with Byron)

Describes the fall of dictator Ozymandias

Ozymandias= King of Air, he is the king of nothing essentially

Endstopping used to show the authority he had, with the use of colons as they are absolite, like his power

Enjambent used emphasises the story like flow of the poem, as it flows in the same way as a campfire story would

Use of s, snake like; sly like a dictator

Nature took over Ozymandias' world

Sonnet (Petrachan) form, more fractured then traditional

Volta comes at line 11 and 12- "I am Ozymandias, King of Kings!"

Ironic- "ye and mighty and despair!"- a declaration of his power, then the next line is about his power gone- "nothing beside remains"

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First Love by John Clare

Rural poet

Grow up in extreme povetry

Poor education-often looked down on for this

About his first love Mary Joyce, daughter of wealthy farmer, which meant he couldn't marry her

ABAB- perfect rhymes, like he views her as

"her face bloomed"- like new life, his life began again when he saw her

Stanza three- everything is not how it should be, because he is so nervous

"she seemed to hear my silent voice"-suggestions of her returning and reference to his povetry

Lexis of nature= "bloomed/flower/trees/bushes/flowers/winter/snow"

"And can return no more"- realising that he cannot live without her- she has her heart

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To Autumn by John Keats

Romantic poet

Keats saw himself as a failure

Autumn personified as a women

Poem of praise and joy

Ode to Autumn

Talking about the sublime

Personification of the sun-"Close bosom-friend of the maturing sun"

Personifcation of summer- "For summer has o'erbrimm'd their clammy cells"- summer has been set free

Lexical set of nature= "season/mists/fruitfulness/sun/fruit/vines/thatch/apples/moss/ripeness/core/hazel shells/flowers/bees/warm days/summer/granary/wind/poppies/brook/cyder-press/spring/rosy/gnats/river swallows/light wind/lambs/hedge-crickets/red breast/swallows- further emphasises Keats' love of nature and sublime

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Break, Break, Break by Alfred Lord Tennyson


Over sentimental- classical repressed Victorian feelings

Devstated over the death of his best friend, Hallam

Went to Lincolnshire coasts- waves reflected his personal feelings

Break, break, break= representative of the crashing waves on the coasts and him feeling broken over his friend's death

Second stanza- strong sense of nolstagia-"that he shouts with his sister at play!"- remembering when they used to play

"But o for the touch of a vanish'd hand"- reaching out for his friend's hand, but it is not there

"And the stately ships go on"- he is on pause whilst grieving, whilst the rest of life goes on

Lexical set of youth- "boy/play/lad"- further emphasising the sense of nolstagia

It is in 1st person, as it is a very personal poem on personal feelings

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Spellbound by Emily Bronte


She has been spellbound by supernatural force

the Sublime and nature

Pathethic fallacy= stormy, gothicness tone reflected

Inspired by the Yorkshire moors

Poem gets progressively worse- climaxes when she gives up and she stays

"clouds beyond clouds/wastes beyond wastes"- contrast between heaven and hell

"But a tyrant spell has bound me"- supernatural force, tyrant= dictator, possibly the Devil

"I will not go"- modal verb, she chooses to stay

ABAB rhyme scheme= incanation like

Lexis of negative words= "night/darkening/wild/tyrant/giant/storm/descending/wastes/drear

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There Is No Good, The Wicked Saith

Dislikes people suddenly being religious


Questioning religion- not anti religion

Stanza 2,3,4= representative of the class system

Stanza One= his own thoughts own on God, "there is no God"

Stanza Two= Age, "There is no God, a youngester thinks"- the young person has not been influenced by the Church

Stanza Three= Working class, "There is no god/to make a little money"- thinks there is no god, but if there is he cares little for working class like him

Stanza Four= Rich, "whether there be, the rich man says, it matters very little"- the rich man does not care either way as long as he gets money- he says his thoughts in regards to the others, b/c he is above them

Last four stanzas= criticism of the Church and its followers

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Dying by Emily Dickinson

Dying= dynamic verb

Had Agoraphobia= fear of going outside

Stayed in her room all her life

Imagining what would happen she dies

the fly image is contrasted with the seriousness of death

Stanza One: The Fly, Stanza Two: Close people, Stanza Three: Her items, Stanza Four: The Final Push

"For the last onset when the king/be witnessed in the room"- king is referring to God, she was highly religious so expects to go to heaven

"Between the light and me"- reference to Heaven (go towards the light!)

The whole poem is anti-climaxing, everything is calm, people have stopped crying, the will is dealt with,so she can go in peace- reaches this at the end- "I could not see to see"

Lexis of religion= "king/witnessed/the light"- representative of her strong religion

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Nature's Questioning by Thomas Hardy

Religious skeptical

Title= personifcation already

Pessimistic= reflects his relgious crisis

Questioning God,if he is there

Pathethic fallacy of winds and rain

Him, Nature, Innocent child nature

"Or come we an Automaton/Unconcious of our pains"- are we being controlled?

"Or is it some high Plan betides"- maybe God has some big plan for us

Lexical set of bibical references= "Vast Imbecility/Mighty/Godhead/high Plan/Evil/Good/Forlorn Hope/Eartth's/Life and Death- reflects religious themes

Poem narrative moves from school children to the actual nature

Frequent use of question marks= reflects inquestive nature of the poem

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God's Grandeur by Gerald Manely Hopkins


Gave up poetry when he became religious, then decided it could be used as worship

Annoyed with people's disregard for God and man's destruction of nature

Petrachan sonnet form

Octave= why people disregard God

Volta= "And for all this, nature is never spent"

Sestet= talking about God's power

He is a traditonalist, tries to fit hymns into poetry and prefers archaic langauge (the Holy Ghost)

"over the bent"- Adam and Eve reference= ruined it all

"World broods with warm breast and with ah!bright wings"- optimistic, God is with us, everything is okay= references to angels, God is watching us+

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