People in Medicine and Treatment

1350-present day

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Medicine and Treatment

Famous and important people

1350 - The Present Day

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1350 - 1750 (M. Ages - Renaissance)

Hippocrates: 1350 - 1750 (M. Ages - Renaissance)

Most important for:

  • The Four Humours
    • Blood
    • Yellow bile
    • Phlegm
    • Black bile

Other Details:

  • Ancient Greek
  • the 'Father of Medicine'
  • medical traditions - clinical observation
  • he was the idea behind the 'Hippocratic Oath'
  • wrote medical books
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Galen

Cladius Galen (AD.129)


Most Important for:

  • his influence on medical treatment for the next 1000 years.

Other Details:

  • his 'theory of opposites'
  • wrote 350 medical texts
  • dissected pigs
  • bloodletting
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Lady Grace Mildmay

Lady Grace Mildmay:

Most important for:

  • her herbal remedies offered to the poor and the records

Other details:

  • she kept records of recipes for her remedies
  • she was a wealthy land owner
  • shows what women could do in the M. Ages
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Vesalius

Andreas Vesalius (1514 - 1564):


Most important for:

  • proved Galen's ideas to be wrong, published drawings on human anatomy

Other Details:

  • dissected corpses
  • muscles connected to bone
  • most complete work on the human anatomy
  • used drugs - mercury, sulphur
  • doctors opposed
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William Harvey

William Harvey (1578 - 1657):

Most important for:

  • discovered how the heart works

Other Details:

  • the heart:
    • pump
    • not used up
    • veins and arteries
  • wrote books
  • how much blood in the body
  • no microscope - capillaries (no proof)
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Pare

Amboise Pare (1510 - 1590):


Most important for:

  • cauterizing with out heat - egg yolk mix and silk stitches

Other Details:

  • surgeon to 4 kings of France
  • made discoveries public
  • bezoar stone theory wrong
  • stitches infected - death
  • public demonstrations
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1750 - 1900 (Industrial Revolution)

Hunter Brothers: 1750 - 1900 (Industrial Revolution)


Most important:

  • studied anatomy and discovered arthritis and its problems

Other details:

  • Glaswegian
  • William - doctor
  • John - not qualified
  • they had a scientific approach to surgery
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Edward Jenner

Edward Jenner:

Most important for:

  • Vaccination for Smallpox 1796

Other Details:

  • inoculation - v. better method
  • luck / chance (milk maids)
  • the 'James Phipps' experiment
  • Opposition:
    • doctors
    • church and public (superstition)
    • inoculators
  • Support from the government
    • funding
    • laws passed
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Louis Pasteur

Louis Pasteur:

Most important for:

  • the Germ Theory of Disease, pasteurization

Other details:

  • proved how vaccines work
  • boiling liquids to remove germs
  • vaccinations for:
    • fowl cholera
    • anthrax
    • rabies
  • influenced others
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Robert Koch

Robert Koch:

Most important for:

  • aseptic surgery - no germs present

Other details:

  • used new technology
  • vaccine serums on solid substances (transport)
  • inspired others
  • Nobel Prize
  • the 'founder of modern bacteriology'
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Paul Erlich

Paul Erlich:

Most important for:

  • chemotherapy

Other Details:

  • Interested: chemicals could stain germs - could they kill?
  • salverson 606 - 'The Magic Bullet'
  • could fight flu and pneumonia
  • painful
  • arsenic based
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Florence Nightingale

Florence Nightingale:

Most important for:

  • her effect on nursing during the Crimean War

Other details:

  • St Thomas' Hospital London - 1871
  • spaced out wards, good air circulation
  • friendly and well trained nurses
  • Scutari hospital in the Crimea
  • 'The Lady with the Lamp'
  • nothing for the WH infirmaries
  • ignored Mary Seacole - racist
  • rich, friends in high places
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Mary Seacole

Mary Seacole:


Most important for:

  • her involvement with nursing in the Crimean War

Other Details:

  • knowledge of tropical treatments
  • succeeded despite racial prejudices
  • opened the British Hotel
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Elizabeth Garret Anderson

Elizabeth Garret Anderson:


Most important for:

  • the first British woman to qualify as a doctor

Other Details:

  • met Elizabeth Blackwell - inspired by her
  • turned down at British Uni's
  • M.D degree - University of Paris 1870
  • 1876 act of Parliament: women allowed to enter all medical professions
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1900 - 2010

Alexander Fleming:

Most important for:

  • Discover of Penicillin

Other Details:

  • doctor WW1
  • prof. of Bacteriology at St Mary's
  • researched protecting people from infection in wounds
  • dish left by open window = mould grown + germs stopped
  • germ killing juice called penicillin
  • tested on animals
  • no facilities or money to produce enough
  • wrote up findings
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Florey and Chain

Florey and Chain:

Most important for:

  • mass production of penicillin and the first antibiotic

Other details:

  • read flemings paper
  • could produce pure penicillin
  • needed money so went to US
  • saved millions in WW2
  • Nobel Prizes
  • mass production achieved
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Watson and Crick

Watson and Crick:

Most important for:

  • discovered the structure of DNA

Other details:

  • great scientists - tried other methods
  • didn't work alone
  • had the best equipment
  • funded by the government and industries
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Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin

R Franklin:

Most important for:

  • showed there was a mistake in Crick and Watson's model
  • took the first picture of DNA

M Wilkins:

Most important for:

  • expert in X-ray photography
  • discovered the Double Helix structure
  • showed Crick and Watson Franklin's work
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David Lloyd George

David Lloyd George:

Most important for:

  • National Insurance Act 1911 and the Liberal Reforms 1906-14

Other Details:

  • PM of the UK
  • helped to start the Welfare State with the Liberal Reforms
  • introduced the People's Budget (higher taxes on the rich)
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William Beverage

William Beverage:

Most important for:

  • The Beverage report and the Welfare state 1942

Other Details:

  • his report proposes a 'Free NHS'
  • 'Cradle to the Grave'
  • 5 Wants of the Nation:
    • Ignorance
    • Squalor
    • Social needs
    • Disease
    • Idleness
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Aneurin Bevan

Aneurin Bevan:

Most important for:

  • Minister of Health and housing and the NHS

Other Details:

  • took over all responsibilities for medical services
  • gave free medicine and treatment to all
  • helped with rebuilding houses after the Blitz
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Comments

Amy

this is a great help to me, Thanks x

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