Peace and Conflict

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  • Created by: sophiaxxb
  • Created on: 22-11-15 19:17

The UN

Formed in 1945 with the basic aim to preserve world peace

The Security Council can:

Impose Sanctions e.g banning trade

Authorise the use of force to stop an agressor

Send Peace keepers to- Prevent conflict, stabalise conflict after ceasefires, lead states and territories to stable goverments, assist in putting agreements into practice

ICC in Hague prosecutes War criminals 

Examples of UN success--- peacekeepers in dozens of countries eg columbia, serbia 

                             ---- has sanctioned wars and prevented conflict eg korea, gulf war

                             ---- imposed sanctions in iran regarding nucleur weapons 

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KOSOVO

1980's ----- Yugoslvia became part of Serbia and was stripped of autonomy in 89. 

Tried peace movement in resistance but failed

1990's Albanian guerilla movement began to attack Serb targets

Servian Army began 'ethnic cleansing

UN sent in peacekeeping forces to keeps Serbs out.UN has protected Kosovo since 1999.

2008, Kosovo and independent state. 

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Religious Organisations and Peace

HOW?

Organising public debates on horrors of war. More likely to vote for peace. 

Oraganising protests eg Iraq war and Darfur conflict. Could change public opionion. Goverments listen to public opinion.

Inter- Faith conferences.

Improving standard of Life. Recognition of human rights. 

WHAT HAVE THEY ACHIEVED?

PAX CHRISTI - Anti war campaigns eg Iraq, put pressure on goverments, Syria--- issued statements supporting negotiations, have worked to provide aid 

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Why wars occur

Religion -

  • One country may feel its followers in another are being treated poorly.eg Bosnia & Kosovo
  • Majority of an area is one religion, country is another eg Kashmir in India
  • Differences within religion eg Taleban 

Nationalism and Ethnicity

  • the belief that each ethnic group should have a country eg Tamil Tigers
  • minority ethnic groups should be removed from the country-- could lead to genocide of ethnic group eg Titsis in Rwanda
  • Artificially created countries as a result of colonialism-- tentions rise egSudan & Kenya 

Economics eg Iraq, some believe it was invaded for resources 

Ideologican/political differences eg Korean War 1949

 

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JUST WAR THEORY

  • CAUSE OF THE WAR MUST BE JUST eg self defence
  • MUST BE AUTHORISED BY GREATER AUTHORITY eg UN
  • FOUGHT WITH THE INTENTION TO RESTORE PEACE
  • LAST RESORT - peaceful methods have failed
  • REASONABLE CHANCE OF SUCCESS - does not waste lives 
  • AVOID KILLING CIVILIANS - discriminate weapons should be used 
  • CONDUCT IS PROPORTIANAL TO THE CAUSE
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Christians attitudes towards war

PACIFISM

  • Sermon on the Mount - turn the other cheek. Love your enemy 
  • Jesus stopped Peter from using violence. Therefore Jesus against war
  • 5th commandment is not to kill
  • 1st 300 years of Christianity, they were pacifist. Great leaders spoke out against war eg Orifen and Cyprian

CAN FIGHT JUST WARS 

  • it is the teaching of the main Churches 
  • St Paul taught that goverments are authorised by God and so you should follow their orders
  • Jesus commended the faith of a Roman Centurian. Accepted rights to be soldiers
  • Give to Caeser what is Caesar's
  • Police force is needed to protect from Criminals. Army needed to protect from countries. 
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Hindu attitudes towards war

PACIFISM

  • ahimsa
  • taking life darkens the soul -- prevents moksha
  • Gandhis idea of satyagraha (truth force). Pacifism can work as a way to remove injustice. Inda fought the only non-violent war in history

FIGHTING IN JUST WAR

  • 2nd most important caste is warrior caste 
  • Bhagavad Gita -- popular Hindu book -- says sould cannot be harmed and only body is killed therefore they need not fear killing
  • Laws of Manu set out rules on war eg women and children are not to be harmed
  • Many stories in Hindu Scriptues eg Rama killing the tyrant king Ravana
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