Formed in 1945 with the basic aim to preserve world peace
The Security Council can:
Impose Sanctions e.g banning trade
Authorise the use of force to stop an agressor
Send Peace keepers to- Prevent conflict, stabalise conflict after ceasefires, lead states and territories to stable goverments, assist in putting agreements into practice
ICC in Hague prosecutes War criminals
Examples of UN success--- peacekeepers in dozens of countries eg columbia, serbia
---- has sanctioned wars and prevented conflict eg korea, gulf war
---- imposed sanctions in iran regarding nucleur weapons
1980's ----- Yugoslvia became part of Serbia and was stripped of autonomy in 89.
Tried peace movement in resistance but failed
1990's Albanian guerilla movement began to attack Serb targets
Servian Army began 'ethnic cleansing'
UN sent in peacekeeping forces to keeps Serbs out.UN has protected Kosovo since 1999.
2008, Kosovo and independent state.
Religious Organisations and Peace
Organising public debates on horrors of war. More likely to vote for peace.
Oraganising protests eg Iraq war and Darfur conflict. Could change public opionion. Goverments listen to public opinion.
Inter- Faith conferences.
Improving standard of Life. Recognition of human rights.
WHAT HAVE THEY ACHIEVED?
PAX CHRISTI - Anti war campaigns eg Iraq, put pressure on goverments, Syria--- issued statements supporting negotiations, have worked to provide aid
Why wars occur
- One country may feel its followers in another are being treated poorly.eg Bosnia & Kosovo
- Majority of an area is one religion, country is another eg Kashmir in India
- Differences within religion eg Taleban
Nationalism and Ethnicity
- the belief that each ethnic group should have a country eg Tamil Tigers
- minority ethnic groups should be removed from the country-- could lead to genocide of ethnic group eg Titsis in Rwanda
- Artificially created countries as a result of colonialism-- tentions rise egSudan & Kenya
Economics eg Iraq, some believe it was invaded for resources
Ideologican/political differences eg Korean War 1949
JUST WAR THEORY
- CAUSE OF THE WAR MUST BE JUST eg self defence
- MUST BE AUTHORISED BY GREATER AUTHORITY eg UN
- FOUGHT WITH THE INTENTION TO RESTORE PEACE
- LAST RESORT - peaceful methods have failed
- REASONABLE CHANCE OF SUCCESS - does not waste lives
- AVOID KILLING CIVILIANS - discriminate weapons should be used
- CONDUCT IS PROPORTIANAL TO THE CAUSE
Christians attitudes towards war
- Sermon on the Mount - turn the other cheek. Love your enemy
- Jesus stopped Peter from using violence. Therefore Jesus against war
- 5th commandment is not to kill
- 1st 300 years of Christianity, they were pacifist. Great leaders spoke out against war eg Orifen and Cyprian
CAN FIGHT JUST WARS
- it is the teaching of the main Churches
- St Paul taught that goverments are authorised by God and so you should follow their orders
- Jesus commended the faith of a Roman Centurian. Accepted rights to be soldiers
- Give to Caeser what is Caesar's
- Police force is needed to protect from Criminals. Army needed to protect from countries.
Hindu attitudes towards war
- taking life darkens the soul -- prevents moksha
- Gandhis idea of satyagraha (truth force). Pacifism can work as a way to remove injustice. Inda fought the only non-violent war in history
FIGHTING IN JUST WAR
- 2nd most important caste is warrior caste
- Bhagavad Gita -- popular Hindu book -- says sould cannot be harmed and only body is killed therefore they need not fear killing
- Laws of Manu set out rules on war eg women and children are not to be harmed
- Many stories in Hindu Scriptues eg Rama killing the tyrant king Ravana