Particle Theory

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Particle Theory and Temperature in Gases

Kinetic energy is proportional to temperature

(Higher temp. -> more energy -> faster movement -> more collisions -> faster reaction)

Brownian Motion:

  • In 1827, Brown noticed that pollen gains move when they have no energy.
  • He concluded that bbigger particles can be moved by smaller particles colliding into them.

Temperature in Kelvins:

  • 0oC = 273kelvins (K)
  • 0K = absolute zero (the lowest possible temperature ever).
  • degrees are proportional to kelvins
  • 5oC = 278K

If converting from degrees to kelvins, add 273                                                                           If converting from kelvins to degrees, subtract 273

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Particle Theory and Pressure in Gases

  • As gas partiles move, they collide with each other and this exerts a force on the surface nd causes the gas particle to change direction.
  •  In a sealed container, the pressure of the collisions on the inside of the container cause an outward pressure.
  •  This pressure depends on how fast the particles are moving and how much energy they have.
  • If you double the temperature insude this container, you double the pressure also.
  • This same amount of gas in a bigger container will have a lower pressure because there are less collisions because of the size of the container. 

At a constant temperature, pressure x volume = constant  (p1V1 = p2V2)

At a constant volume, pressure / temperature = constant (p1/T1 = p2/T2)

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