Particle Theory and Temperature in Gases
Kinetic energy is proportional to temperature
(Higher temp. -> more energy -> faster movement -> more collisions -> faster reaction)
- In 1827, Brown noticed that pollen gains move when they have no energy.
- He concluded that bbigger particles can be moved by smaller particles colliding into them.
Temperature in Kelvins:
- 0oC = 273kelvins (K)
- 0K = absolute zero (the lowest possible temperature ever).
- degrees are proportional to kelvins
- 5oC = 278K
If converting from degrees to kelvins, add 273 If converting from kelvins to degrees, subtract 273
Particle Theory and Pressure in Gases
- As gas partiles move, they collide with each other and this exerts a force on the surface nd causes the gas particle to change direction.
- In a sealed container, the pressure of the collisions on the inside of the container cause an outward pressure.
- This pressure depends on how fast the particles are moving and how much energy they have.
- If you double the temperature insude this container, you double the pressure also.
- This same amount of gas in a bigger container will have a lower pressure because there are less collisions because of the size of the container.
At a constant temperature, pressure x volume = constant (p1V1 = p2V2)
At a constant volume, pressure / temperature = constant (p1/T1 = p2/T2)