House of Lords
- The House of Commons are elected and there are limits on House of Lords which provides more opportunities for public opinion.
- Very thorough process involving debate scrutiny and amendments
- Likely to win at each voting stage - demographic since elected by majority. Minister's knowledge of bill and expertise of the civil service
- Acts a check on the House of Commons - more scrutiny of bill of high quality
- Not only government bills but also Lords and private members bill. Can be used to introduce controversial bills and urgently needed law.
Dated processes and language
- Neither the House of Lords or the Queen so shouldn't have powers that are able to delay the House of Commons
- The government control the timetable e.g. use of guillotine - leads to bad law Dangerous Dogs Act 1991
- The timetable means less private members are likely to succeed. not enough time to change old laws
- They have to go through many readings so can take months meaning that not all legislation is passed. Royal Assent is a pointless stage and just adds to the time.
- Language can be obscure and ambiguous requiring statutory interpretation.
Stages of a bill
- FIRST READING
- SECOND READING
- COMMITTEE STAGE
- REPORT STAGE
- THIRD READING
- HOUSE OF LORDS
- 'PING PONG'
- ROYAL ASSENT
- Short title of bill is read out in the Commons by the Clerk
- MP's debate and vote on the main principles and purpose
- Detailed examination takes place. Goes to either Public Bill Committee or Committee of the whole House
- Consider amendments which where made during the committee stage
- The final review
- Repetition of stages but at House of Lords
- Passed backwards and forwards between two Houses till final text is agreed on
- The Queen gives agreement for the bill to be passed
Types of bills
- Government Bills
- Private Members Bills
Affect the public
- majority of bills e.g. Anti-Terrorism Crime and Security Act 2001.Usually included in the Queen's Speech .e.g. Climate Change Bill
- introduced into Parliament by individual MP's e.g. David Alton's Abortion Act 1998. very few became acts as the government control the timetable. One which has become an Act Murder [Abolition of Death Penalty] Act 1965
A piece of legislation that gives powers to a particular group of persons i.e. local councils or private corporation. Don't effect public as whole e.g. University College London Act 1996. sometimes only affect one or two people