Paper 2 text types (HL)

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Le Journal Intime

  • This is a diary so it's a piece of personal writing, where people often express their feelings about someone or a situation.
  • Since the intended audience is mainly yourself, you can use familiar expressions.
  • You should pretend that you are conversing with a friend and address this friend directly.

STRUCTURE follow the structure below for easy structure marks in the exam.


Cher Journal,


(Conclude e.g. Bon, il est ****, il faut que j'aille me chouchez, bonne nuit!).

Remember to address the diary informally (i.e. tu).

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Le Blog / Blogue ou Bloc-notes

  • A blog is not that different to a diary, it is a personal page where emotions and opinions are shared about a particular issue.
  • The only difference is that, whilst your diary isn't supposed to be read by anyone but you, a blog is on a website, and so it's purpose is to allow you to share your thoughts and emotions with others.
  • Familiar language can be used (careful as this depends on the audience of the blog!).

STRUCTURE follow the structure below for easy structure marks in the exam.

(Layout of a web page, with personal information of the blogger on the side, links to the archvives, other websites, contact me etc.)

The first blog on the page, should be the most recent one, remember that in a blog the posts are presented in reverse chronological order.

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  • This is a piece of written work in which the journalist is going to give information about someone or an event.
  • The tone should be neutral, but it can also be subjective and express strong opinion.
  • The register can be very formal (Le Monde), or familiar (School Newspaper).

STRUCTURE follow the structure below for easy structure marks in the exam.

  • An article should ALWAYS have:
    • A main title
    • A date
    • The name of the journalist
    • Paragraphs with subheadings
    • Examples or percentages to reinforce your message
  • An article COULD have:
    • A brief introduction
    • Pictures
    • Humour (depending on the type of article)
    • Quotations (can be invented).
    • Conditional tense to expose unverified facts.
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La Lettre (Formal)

  • The structure of a formal letter is always no the same no matter if you are applying for a job, filing a complaint, congratulating someone etc. the 'traditional' structure is always the same.

STRUCTURE follow the structure below for easy structure marks in the exam.

Top right: name and address of sender; Top left: name and address of receiver.

Above text: Subject, Attachments, Place and date.

Formule d'appel (if you have mentioned their name in the address e.g. Madame or Monsieur; if you know the job position e.g. Monsieur le Directeur; if you do not know who the person is: Madam/Monsieur)


Formule de politesse (Je vous prie de croire, Madame, ne l'assurance de mes sentiments devoués) + Signature

Remember to use the formal vous, follow a formal register, grammar!, use evidence/examples if you have to prove a point!

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La Lettre (Informal)

  • An informal letter is a letter that you would write to a friend or to family.

STRUCUTRE follow the structure below for easy structure marks in the exam.

Remember to:

  • Structure the letter just like a formal letter (see card 4).
    • Adresses (not essential in an informal letter but appreciated).
    • Place and date
    • Formule d'appel "Cher..." "Salut..." etc.
    • Formule de politesse "À bientôt" "Écris-moi vite" etc.
    • Signature (as the person you are pretending to be!)
  • The register you use MUST be coherent throughout your letter.
    • Informal register "tu".
  • Letter should be logical and structured, careful on your use of connectives as they have to be suited to an informal setting.
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La Lettre (Email [courriel ou courrier électroniqu

  • An email can be both formal and informal, and is very similar to a letter with a few differences.

STRUCTURE follow the structure below for easy structure marks in the exam.

(Email page structure)

From (de), To (à), Cc, Subject (objet), Attachements (pièces jointes).

Formule d'appel

  • Use vous for a formal email a long with a formal register and vocabulary.
  • Use tu for an informal email with an informal register.

Formule de politesse (chose the appropriate one based on the content of the email i.e. formal or informal).


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Types of Letters

Formal Letter

  • Lettre de remerciements/félications
    • Thank you or congratulatory letter.
  • Lettre de demande de renseignements ou informations
    • Letter asking for information.
  • Lettre de motivation
    • Job Application.
  • Lettre de réclamation / pour vous plaindre
    • Letter of complaint.
  • Lettre à un journal / au courrier des lecteurs
    • Letter to a journal to congratulate or to complain.

Informal Letter

  • Letter to a friend to give advice.
  • Letter to your parents to convince them of something.
  • Letter to thank someone for helping you or for hosting a family.
  • Letter to ask someone advice.
  • Letter ot a friend to talk about a specific event and express you emotions.
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Le Discours

  • A speech is primarily writen to be said, so, it has to be extremely well structured and clear.
  • It is usually meant ot present facts and to convince an audience of something.

STRUCTURE follow the structure below for easy structure marks in the exam.

Remember to:

  • Always start the speech by addressing your audience.
  • If the audience is unknown, introduce yourself too.
  • Use a short, but catchy introduction to your topic.
  • Choose the appropriate register of language.
  • Address the audience directly and keep them engaged (e.g. rhetorical questions).
  • Use repetitions, punctuation, and effects (i.e. bold, underline and italics).
  • Use examples of the facts you are stating.
  • Use humour (only if appropriate).
  • Must be logical and strucuted, so use linking words.
  • Involve yourself personally from time to time "nous", "je", "moi" etc.
  • Short by sharp conclusion, that will stick.
  • Thank the audience.
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Le Guide de Recommandations / Le Dépliant / La Bro

  • The main purpose of a guide or brochure is to give the audience advice about something or making the audience aware of a specific issue, asking for help or to act in a certain way.

STRUCTURE follow the structure below for easy structure marks in the exam.

  • Title
  • Introduction
  • Subtitles
  • Pictures / Facts or Examples
  • Lists
  • Paragraphs
  • Conclusion
  • Contact details
  • Punctuation to make the guide more convincing or interesting.
  • Has a consistent register of language.
  • Varying sentence structures.
  • Use of bold, italics or underlines.
  • Engage your audience by making them think about specific ideas.
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Le Récit D'Imagination / D'Invention

  • This is a creative writing response. This type of text may seem easier in the first instance as there is no real prescribed topic for it.
  • You are often given the first couple of lines of the story or you might be asked to invent a story but given certain elements to include in your narrative.

STRUCTURE follow the structure below for easy structure marks in the exam.

  • You story must be interesting and attract the examiner's attention
  • It must be meaningful and structured, avoid letting your imagination run wild and forget the plot.
  • Use link words to mainting your structure,
  • Use structures to create suspense.
    • Punctuation marks
    • Expressions of feelings "Quelle horreur!! Je commencais à avoir peur" etc.
    • Questions to reinforce the tension "Y avait-il vraiment quelq-un derrière cette porte? Que risquait-il de se passer si je l'ouvrais?".
    • It must be logical and in chronological order.
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Le Compte Rendu

  • This is an account or summary of an event that you might have been involved with / taken part in or something that has happened.
  • This is a factual report of an event, so it should be objective and as precise as possible.
  • This should be detailed information as well as examples and proof of what you are saying.

STRUCTURE follow the structure below for easy structure marks in the exam.

  • Should be written in the past tense, but other tenses and moods can be used.
  • If you are asked to write a summary of a future event, it would take the form of a structured proposal in the future tense.
  • The style and register will vary according to the context, aim, purpose and audience.
  • This could be part of a task (e.g. guide, article, letter etc.) or it could be a whole task (in which case you should give it a title).
  • This should be structured chronologically OR thematically.
  • Add the author/writer of the summary.
  • A brief but sharp introduction as well as a short conclusion will be useful,
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La Déclaration à la Police

  • This type of text does not appear very often in exams, but it's one of the texts that you should know.
  • The type of declaration could be:
    • Report of a theft
    • A witness account of an accident
    • A victim account

STRUCTURE follow the structure below for easy structure marks in the exam.

  • This is an official document, so it needs dates (sometimes even times), names and details of the victims/witnesses/persons making the deposition, the place where the accident took place as well as where the deposition was made.
  • Should follow the format of a report.
  • Should be organised logically and chronologically.
  • Use subheadings and detailed descriptions in the past tense (mainly).

Date de la déposition / nom de la victim, du témoin / Adresse / Nature de l'incident / Date et heure de l'incident / Lieu / Nom de la personne présente lors de la déposition / Fonction / Signature dépositaire / Signature du témoin présent.

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La Revue / La Critique de Film / Livre

  • This type of text can have different forms, as it is adapted to the type of audience.
  • You may have to take a point of view / write a neutral review, but often you will have to write a positive or negative review.

STRUCTURE follow the structure below for easy structure marks in the exam.

  • Make sure you demonstrate your knowledge using specific vocabulary linked to films or books.
  • Describe and talk about the characters / the plot / the special effects / style of writing (for a book) etc.
  • Mention the writer / film director / actors. Summarise the story / plot.
  • Express your personal opinion and use linking words.
  • When writing a review for a book, try to use a French book. When writing a movie review, it doesn't have to be from a French movie, but it looks better if it is.
  • If you are writing about a cinematographic adaptation of a book, compare it to the book.
  • Make references to previous films / novels / plays etc.
  • Finish the review with Par and your name.

Réalisateur / Durée / Avec / Auteur / Date de publication etc.

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  • This is a rare type of text to appear, nevertheless, it is one you should know.
  • This is a short account / story of an often incongruous event, which can be both historical and personal.
  • This is often retold because of its incongruity / originality / strangeness / humouristic nature.
  • Usually no opinion is expressed.

STRUCTURE follow the structure below for easy structure marks in the exam.

  • This can be layed out like an account or report (see card 11 or 12).
  • It should be structured chronologically.
  • Lots of details and descriptions should be used, along with the appropriate vocabulary to make it interesting.
  • There is no official format, as it is basically a story.
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La Page Internet

  • This does not constitute a type of text on its own, so it's usually in joint with another text type.
  • So you should maintain the same lingusitic requirements of that type of text, while adapting them to the format of an internet page.

STRUCTURE follow the structure below for easy structure marks in the exam.

  • An internet address box.
  • A menu.
  • Some links to be clicked on (don't forget the page should be interactive!).
  • Boxes for pictures if necessary.
  • Clearly and attractively presented.
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  • This is usually written in the form of a question and answer session, taking place between two people.
  • The questions asked will depend on who is being interviewed, the purpose of the interview and where the interview is published.
  • This will determine the register of the language, however the interview must be meaningful and interesting.

STRUCTURE follow the structure below for easy structure marks in the exam.

  • You should have general questions that slowly make there way to a specific question.
  • The interview must be conducted in a structured and logical way.
  • If the interview is being published in a magazine, then it should have a small introduction and conclusion.
  • Include personal anecdotes from the interviewee, as well as humour.
  • Depending on the nature of the interview, add personal views and opinions that can be expressed, argued, presented or challenged.
  • A script would use punctiation to express mood, with many linking words and a variety of grammar with a rich a specific range of vocabulary.
  • Don't forget to thank the interviewee at the end!
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  • An editorial is a type of newspaper / magazine article, and is usually published at the beginning of the magazine (1st or 2nd page), written by the rédacteur / rédactrice en chef of the magazine (the voice of the magazine's views of a particular issue).
  • This is done to discuss opinions, and to express personal views about a particular topic/issue. It can be argumentative, but NOT TOO MUCH!

STRUCTURE follow the structure below for easy structure marks in the exam.

  • Write clear arguments to convey your views, because you will need to explain in detail these arguments with examples / statistics.
  • This will have to be convincing, the prime aim of an editorial is to raise awareness of a specific issue to its readers.
  • Use some of the techniques in speeches (see card 8).
  • Don't forget to use a wide range of grammatical structures and grammatical terms.
  • To conclude your editorial, write a summary of what can be found in the magazine's issue.
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La Brochure / Le Tract / L'Appel

  • These are not too different to a guide, as they need to attract attention and convince.
  • They don't have to appear as a leaflet, and may not have nice pictures designed to attract one's attention, but their aim is rather similar.
  • They want to either make people react, join a cause or donate money.
  • Tracts can be used as a form of propaganda. They are designed to give information, express strong opinions, convince / incite and sometimes even urge people to act about a particular situaiton.

STRUCTURE follow the structure below for easy structure marks in the exam.

  • Visually attract people's attention.
    • Title, use of capital letters, words in bold, italics or underlined / bullet points / punctuation...
  • Structured clearly and logically.
  • Be convincing (repetition, questions) using persuasive language.
  • Use a range and appropriate vocabulary.

An appel usually uses more formal language. A brochure can be completely informative without expressing opinion i.e. Brochure ou dépliant touristique.

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La Dissertation

  • This is the same as the structure for a Section B response.

STRUCTURE follow the structure below for easy structure marks in the exam.

  • Introduction
    • Introduce the topic by relating it to real life, try incorporating the statement.
    • Say what you will write about.
    • Don't give your opinion!
  • Body
    • Try to write either 3 arguments, 4 lines each OR 4 arguments, 3 lines each.
    • Careful to make sure that all your arguments (for and/or against) are directly related to the question given in the exam, you can break down the quotation/statement etc. and relate to those smaller parts if you want.
  • Conclusion
    • Summarise your points without repeating them.
    • Try to relate your position (giving your opinion) to real life.
    • Try using comparative vocabulary.
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La Proposition Raisonnée

  • This type of text has not appeared often in the exam, but you should know it just in case.
  • This is a kind of argued proposal whose aim is to achieve a certain goal (e.g. convincing a group or committee to aggree with a point of view).

STRUCTURE follow the structure below for easy structure marks in the exam.

  • This is a formal document so be careful of the register you use.
  • Give the proposal a title (this will give the audience an indication of the content / theme of your proposal).
  • An introduction, say What is it about?, Why?, Context?
  • Indicate clearly who is submitting the proposal.
  • formule d'appel would be appropriate.
  • This should be clearly and logically presented, structured with link words with sub headings, paragraphs etc.
  • Argue and illustrate your point of view using linguistic features.
  • Give concrete and practical ideas, to convince him/her or them.
  • Be detailed in the description of your project and as specific as possible.
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