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  • Created on: 23-09-14 21:46

What is psychology?

Psychology is the study of the Mind Behaviour and Experience.

It originates from the Greek word for soul psyche.

Psychology uses science to analyse things which are associated with moods, attitudes, thoughts and memories.

It's nearly impossible to observe and measure these things directly so you must look deeper and speak to the people.

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Biological approach

Physiological or biological psychologists look at the physical basis of behaviour.

They focus on how the hormonal(endocrine) system and the nervous system especially the brain.

Example: smell
Women preferred the smell of men who had the opposite immune system to them.
If the women was on the pill the opposite was true.
The experiment was carried out in the university of Bern in Switzerland, by Claus Wedekind in 1995

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Psychodynamic approach

This theory was mainly pushed by Zigmund Freud.

The basis of this theory is that our behaviour is based on our instincts.

All instincts, motives and desires come from the unconscious mind, which means that our behaviour is to some extent predefined by our ingrained instincts.

There is also the idea that if these desires are fulfilled as a child your personality will form naturally if not undesirable traits will occur.

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Cognitive psychology

The cognitive approach is the idea that all the things we know and experience are put in we process them and from that most of human thought is based.

Cognitive psychology focuses on how humans process information, schemes are often referred to.

Schema: this is a cognitive framework or idea to help you process or organise information.

Points which are deeply studied: perception, intelligence, memory and perception.

Envoi entail input ~>sensory memory~attention~> short term memory~rehearsal~>long term memory~retrieval~>short term memory~> recall or rehearsal loop

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Bio keywords

Genes-these contain your DNA which gives your body all the information to make you you, this defines how you turn out and impacts your personality.
Neurotransmitters-these are what carries the information from the receptors to the brain.
Hormones-these are chemical messages.
Evolution- this is when different genes are carried on and species gain different adaptations.
Adaptive-being able to adapt readily to new situations.

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Psycho keywords

Defence mechanism- these are intuitive which means they are instinctive to protect us.
Unconscious mind- this is the part of the mind which is natural it's without us actively thinking about it.
I'd-it's the part of your personality which is completely natural and instinctive.
Ego- this is the part which is instinctive but has been affected by the environment and people around us.
Superego-this is the part of our personality which is entirely learned from the world and people around us.
Oral phase- this is the phase in infancy in which we are totally dependent on our mouths for a source of stimulation as well as on care takers. If children are not weened of the need for the care giver then in adult life it can cause dependency and aggression.
Oedipus/Electra complex-this is the co petite nature of the relationship between a daughter and a mother or a son and a father over the attention as well as love of the father or mother.

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Cognitive keywords

Memory- the way our brain store information for later retrieval.
Attention-taking notice of someone or something of interest
Perception- the way you view something, it's affected by the similar experiences in the past.
Schema-a cognitive framework or idea which helps organise and interpret information.
Script-the series of expected behaviours from anyone you analyse

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