organic reagents

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  • Created by: vinita
  • Created on: 13-03-12 17:32

Homolytic fission - each bonded atom takes one of the shaired pair of electrons.

Each atom now has an unpaired electron and is called a radical

Two species of the same type are produced: X - Y -------> X. + Y. (2 radicals)

Heterolytic fission - One of the bonded atoms takes both of the shaired pair of electrons.

Two ions are produced:

The atom that takes both shared electrons becomes a negatively charged ion (anion)

The atom that does not take the shared electrons becomes positively charged ion (cation). X - Y ----------> X+ + Y- (2 ions)

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Nucelophile is a reactant that attacks an electron deficient carbon atom, donating an electron pair. Are often negative ions with a lone pair of electrons. Often inculde an electronegative atom with a lone pair of electrons and a Negative partial charge

Br-, :OH-, H2O, NH3

Electrophile is a reactant that attacks an area of high electrons density accepting an electron pair. Are often positive ions. Some molecules can act as electrophiles these often include an atom with a positive partial charge.

Br2, HBr, NO2+

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Addition -2 reactants combine and make 1 product. Molecule is added across the double bond of an unsaturated molecule to make a saturated molecule.

 

Substitution - atom or group of atoms is replaced with different atom or group of atoms.

 

Elimination - 1 reactant to form 1 products. Molecule is removed from saturated molecule to make an unsaturated molecule.

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Comments

Scott

Fresh out of the textbook.

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