Topic 3: Operating online

  • Created by: Myst123
  • Created on: 08-03-18 10:24

The Internet

A huge network of computers.

Services : World Wide Web (WWW) - HTTP protocol

Connect to Internet  = network interface (NIC) needed -> cable  / Wi-Fi connection + sign up with Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Selecting an ISP - things to consider:

  • Cost: monthly fee + set- up cost
  • Bandwidth: Higher bandwidth = Higher fee.
  • Download limits: Charge extra if over the limit.
  • Email and web space: Give email addresses + space to create website
  • Security: Broadband, always-on, connctions vulnerable. Provide firewall, antivirus, antispam software + parental controls
  • Reliability & support:  Check magaxines, online forums + user groups for advice.
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Internet use

  • Email: Sending messages
  • Instant messaging (IM): "Talking" in real time by typing messages
  • Blogs: Shared online diaries.
    • Twitter - microblog
  • Social networking: Chat, messaging, email, groups
    • e.g. Facebook, Snapchat, Instagram
  • Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP): Need fast Internet connection.
    • e.g. Skype
  • Online albums: Photo albums hosted on website.
    • Share & back up photos.
  • Keep in touch with friends through email & social networking sites.
  • Download & stream music/ films
  • Keep up to date with news through RSS feeds
  • Access school's VLE
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Internet use


  • Email, Instant messaging, VoIP:
    • communicating over Internet:
      • Aid collaboration.
      • Over-reliance/ misuse
  • Cloud computing:
    • storing software - data centrally- acccessed anywhere:
      • No need to buy multiple software licenses.
      • Security issues - date stored by third party.
  • Video conferencing: 
    • two-way audio & video transmissions:
      • Reduces travel = lowers costs.
      • Don't communicate as well as face to face.
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Internet use

Learning on the Internet:

  • Virtual Learning Environment:
    • Web-based system - students, parents, teachers communicate in "virtual school":
      • Students access tasks + resources uploaded by teachers + Track progress.
      • Cannot access if no Internet connection.
  • News websites:
    • RSS feeds- see latest stories.
    • Search archives -find old stories.
    • Over-reliance on news websites > using number of sources for research.
  • User - generated websites (WIKIs):
    • websites people add own content :
      • Up-to-date information source.
      • Information may be accurate or biased.
  • Email, instant messaging, VoIP:
    • Improved / quicker communication.
    • Possible over-reliance / overuse.
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Security measures

  • Usernames & passwords:
    • not easily guessed, mixture of numbers, letters, sympols, uppercase and lower case letters.
    • Don't write it down + change it regularly.
  • Challenge-response test:
    • Security question + "Secret answer"
      • used to identify yourself is password forgotten.
    • Captcha: enter letters + numbers shown.
      • Check form not completed by software "bot"/"web robot"
      • Assume no software can read letters displayed + enter them into required system.
      • Used to protect systems vulnerable to email spam.
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Security measures

  • IP filtering:
    • Prevents data from entering a network. e.g. prevent access from certain locations.
  • Policies:
    • e.g. An Acceptable Use Policy sets out the expectations of users when accessing a website or service.
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Personal spaces


  • personal websites, online photo albums, forums, blogs, social networking sites, personal page on VLE / work social media platforms

Personalising by adding:

  • photos, personal information, texts, weblinks, likes, dislikes, news feeds

Control who has access:

  • Make online albums private - enetering email addresses of people to have access
  • Don't befriend everyone who sends a friend request
  • Chack & use privacy settings
  • Think beofre sharing anything online
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Personal spaces

Five rules:

  • Not post anything online - not made want public
  • Minimise details that identify you / whereabouts
  • Keep account numbers, usernames and passwords secret
  • Only share screen names with people you know
  • Not use apps with GPS function that share location with people that are not known
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Information misuse

Overt data collection - know information is being collected e.g.

  • Opening online account: submit personal information - Reputable companies keep data secure + won't share it - ask to opt in marketing emails
  • Paying online: submit financial information - check site is secure by looking for: https or padlock

Covert data collection - don't know information is being collected e.g.

  • Spyware: Hackers install software (Trojans) spy on computer
    • Record all key strokes / take pictures of screen
    • Find out personal / financial information - use to commit fraud
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Preventing misuse

Controlling cookies: major privacy concern

  • Accept / reject some cookies - each time cookie offered brower setted to prompt them
  • Option to delete all cookies on computer

Privacy policies: describes website's use of cookies + other trackers


  • Often urgent tone to hand over information without thinking
  • Golden rule: banks never contact you by email asking for secure details
  • Impersonal greeting, threat, URL doesn't take you to bank website, request for personal information
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Preventing misuse

Preventing spyware

  • Firewall - prevent spyware - remotely downloaded to computer
  • Antispyware protection software
  • Wary of downloading popular "free" music + movie file-sharing programs
  • Download programs from trusted websites
  • Read all security warnings, licence agreements & privacy statements
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Data Protection Act 1998

  • Secure
  • Not ask more data than necessary
  • Not keep data longer than necessary
  • Data accurate + up-to-date
  • Not use data for any other purpose without consent.

Data protection rights

  • Right to look at + check personal data organisation holds abouts you ( can be charged to access data)
  • Demand incorrect information amended
  • Data not used in way that harm / distress you
  • Data not used for direct marketing
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Computer Misuse Act 1990: three levels of crime

  • Unauthorised access to computer material:
    • includes logging with password without permission
    • stealing documents and programs
  • Unauthorised modification of computer material:
    • destroying / corrupting another user's files
    • modifying system files
    • creating a virus
  • Unauthorised access to a computer with intent:
    • gaining access to financial / administrative records
    • using information to commit a further crime
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Copyright, Designs and Patents Act:

  • protects people's original work from being used without permission.
  • All original work is copyright.
  • Copyright owners can use Creative Commons licences - allow certain uses of work.

Consequences of illegal file sharing:

  • Prosecution
  • Internet Service Provider may prevent using Internet
  • Sent to prison
  • Huge impact on music and film industries
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