OCR B Geography ~ Dynamic Development (Finished GCSEs so it's incomplete)

  • Created by: Anjola03
  • Created on: 01-03-18 14:44

What is development?

  • Development is a subjective term and can be interpreted in a number of ways.
  • In geogrphical terms development is
  • the process and change towards improving living standards
  • the state of growth or advancement
  • Development is influenced by humans
  • There are different aspects to development:
  • Economic development ~ economic growth (e.g. wealth, infrastructure, level of industrialisation and technology)
  • Social development ~ progress in standard of living (e.g. health care and access to clean water
  • Environmental development ~ management and protection of the environment (e.g. reducing pollution and increasing recycling)
  • No country is fully developed and no country is not developed at all
1 of 21

What is wealth?

  • Wealth refers to amount of money
  • Wealth is a narrow concept as it refers to money alone
  • It doesnot include things that may be important to our happiness
  • Development is a wide-ranging concept
  • It includes wealth and other elements
  • Development leads to an improved quality of life


2 of 21

Quality of life


  • Income
  • Job security
  • Standard of living (housing, personal mobility)


  • Diet/ nutrition
  • Water supply
  • Climate
  • Environmental quality


  • Family / friends
  • Education
  • Health (mental and physical)
  • Freedom
3 of 21

The Brandt Line

  • In 1980 the Brandt report on development divided the world into:
  • Rich North (consisted of MEDCs ~ more economically developed countries)
  • Poor South (consisted of LEDCs ~ less economically developed countries)Image result for brandt line
  • The International Monetary Fund (IMF) classifies nations into three catergories
  • Advanced Countries (ACs)
  • Emerging Developing Countries (EDCs)
  • Low-Income Developing Countries (LIDCs)
4 of 21

Advanced Countries (ACs)

  • Only 16% of all countries are classed as an ACs
  • Most are found on the continents of
    • Europe
    • North America (USA and Canada)
    • Oceania (Australia and New Zealand)
  • There are only three in Asia
    • Singapore
    • Japan
    • South Korea
  • ACs have...
    • well-developed financial markets
    • diversified economic structures
    • rapid growing service sectors
    • an increase in quarternary (education, research, ICT) and tertiary (retail, services) industries
    • better education
    • a high life-epectancy
    • a better quality of life
5 of 21

Emerging Developing Countries (EDCs)

  • EDCs are getting richer
  • Their economy transfers from being based in primary industries (e.g. mining) to being based in secondary industries (e.g. manufacturing)
  • decrease in poverty
  • more exports than imports
  • increase in exports and wages means more money to spend on development (e.g. health care, education, transport)
  • improving standard of living

Examples: China, Brazil, Russia, India

  • A few EDCs are predicted to be part of the biggest economies in the world by 2050
    • Brazil
    • Russia
    • India
    • China
    • Mexico
    • Indonesia
    • Nigeria
    • Turkey
6 of 21

Low-Income Developing Countries (LIDCs)

  • They are the poorest countries in the world
  • Low standard of living
  • Economy based on primary industries (e.g. agriculture)
  • more imports than exports
  • They don't have enough money to spend on development so it stays low

Examples: Afghanistan, Somalia, Mali and Nepal

7 of 21

Measure of Development

  • Gross Domestic Product (GDP) ~ total value of goods and services a country produces in a year
    • measure of wealth
    • often given in $
    • As a country develops, it gets higher
    • High figure = good
  • GDP per capita ~ GDP divided by population of country
    • measure of wealth
    • often given in $
    • As a country develops, it gets higher
    • High figure = good
  • Gross National Income (GNI) ~ total value of goods and services a country produces in a year, including imports from overseas
    • measure of wealth
    • often given in $
    • As a country develops, it gets higher
    • High figure = good
8 of 21

Measure of Development (cont.)

  • Birth rate ~ number of live babies per 1000 of the population per year
    • measure of women's right
    • As a country develops, it gets lower
    • Low figure = good
  • Death rate ~ number of deaths per 1000 of the population per year
    • measure of health
    • As a country develops, it gets lower
    • Low figure good
  • Life expectancy ~ average agea person can expect to live to
    • measure of health
    • As a country develops,it gets higher
    • High figure = good
  • Infant mortality rate ~ number of babies who die under 1 years old per 1000 born
    • measure of health
    • As a country develops, it gets lower
    • Low figure = good
9 of 21

Measure of Development (cont. 2)

  • Literacy rate ~ % of adults who can read and write
    • measure of education
    • As a country develops, it gets higher
    • High figure = good
  • Human Development Index (HDI) ~ calculated using life epectancy, education level (years of schooling) and income per head
    • measure of many things
    • As a country develops, it gets higher
    • High figure = good
    • Every country has a HDI value between 0 (least developed) and 1 (most developed)
  • Happy Index ~ Calculated by dividing a country's life expectancy, well being and level of inequality by it's environmental impact
    • measure of many things
    • no overall pattern
    • Countries are graded:
      • green (good)
      • amber (medium
      • red (bad)
10 of 21

More on GNI and GDP

  • To truly understand the real wealth of s country, the GDP and GNI needs to be divided by the size of the population
  • GNI per capita and GDP per capita shows the average wealth per person but it does not account for the cost of living between countries because the same amount of money in one country may buy more compared to another.
  • PPP (purchasing power parity) takes this into account
    • Adjusting the value according to what it buys in that country
  • They are also both economic measures of development
11 of 21

More on the Human Development Index (HDI)

  • The 3 components of HDI are:
    • Health
    • Education
    • Living Standards
  • The development indicators for each component are:
    • Life expectancy at birth (health)
    • Mean years in schooling (education)
    • Expected years in schooling (education)
    • GNI per capita (living standards)
  • The United Nations prefer to use HDI more than any single indicator method because it gives a more accurate observation of the development of a country by looking at a broader range of indicators rather than focusing on wealth.
  • HDI is a social measure of development
12 of 21

Other social measures of development

  • Birth rate
  • Literacy rate
  • Death rate
  • Life exxpectancy
  • Population per doctor (1) people per doctor/ 2) doctor per 1000)
    • 1) High figure = bad
    • 2) High figure = good
  • % employed in agriculture (primary sector)
    • High figure = bad
      • indicates poorness
  • Infant mortality rate
13 of 21

Other economic measures of development

  • % employed in agriculture
  • Imports and eports (trade deficit or trade surplus)
    • High figure = good when balanced
14 of 21

Factors affecting development

  • The development gap is the term used to describe the gap between the wealth of the wealthiest countries (or individuals in a country) and the poorest.
  • The development gap has increased over the years and the already rich have gotten richer
  • The development gap can also be described as a show of uneven development
  • The development gap can be affected by both physical and human factors
15 of 21

Physical factors

  • Climate
    • Extreme climates (such as hot and cold deserts) will limit industry (e.g. agriculture) and affect health (e.g. malnutrition)
    • Some climates will attract tourism, e.g. tropical beaches
    • Reliability of rainfall influences agriculture and can create risks, e.g. monsoons, droughts
  • Natural Hazards
    • Risk of earthquake, volcanic eruption, tropical storms, floods, etc. can limit development
    • Frequent hazards will damage buildings, cause injury, reduce industry and farming
    • Some benefits from volcanic ash and minerals; flood waters bring rich soil
  • Location and terrain
    • Attractive, aesthetic scenery will attract tourist income
    • Steep, mountainous, rocky terrain is more difficult to build on and limits farming
    • Landlocked countries may find trade with distant countries more difficult
16 of 21

Physical factors (cont.)

  • Natural resources
    • Fuel sources such as coal, oil, natural gas
    • Access to safe water for health
    • Availability of timber for fuel and construction
    • Minerals and metals for trade, energy and manufacturing
17 of 21

Human factors

  • History
    • Colonisation
    • Industrialisation
  • Politics
    • Democracy and right to vote
    • Trade
      • Investment
      • Dependency
      • Growth of TNCs
      • Fair or unfair trade
      • Debt
    • Global links (membership of international groups e.g. UN, EU)
    • War corruption
  • Culture
    • Traditional societies may reject material goods/ consumption
18 of 21

Human factors (cont.)

  • Healthcare
    • Disease
    • Access to vaccines
  • Technology
    • Railway
    • Electricity
    • Internet
19 of 21

Barriers to development


  • LIDCs have international debts due to borrowing from other nations and organisations to help with development
  • This borrowing comes at a cost, like loans, and interest rates are high
  • Some nations will never be able to repay their debt and have to keep borrowing from others to make payments
  • Debt causes dependency whereby nations are trapped in a spiral of decline
  • Some debt is a legacy of colonialism or unfair loans or sometimes even from the aid that was given with strings attached (bilateral aid)
  • The jubilee 2000 initiative suggested that 'third world debt' be cancelled, so that nations could restart their economies and take part in the world economy
  • The government being in debt means they can't invest money in development (e.g. health care, education

Example ~ Nepal had to pay $210 million on debt payments in 2015

20 of 21

Barriers to development (cont.)


  • Trade is the exchange of goods and services, countries can import (buy them) and export (sell them) these
  • To break out of poverty a nation needs an income, this involves importing goods and services that are needed and exporting high-value goods and services
  • The balance of trade needs to be positive, with more exports than imports
  • exports > imports = trade surplus ~ more money in than out
  • exports < imports = trade deficit ~ less money in than out
  • World trade patterns influence a country's economy in which affects their leel of development
  • If a country's exports are primarily based in the primary industry it's more likely to be less developed
21 of 21


No comments have yet been made

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all Development resources »