Nucleotides and ATP

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  • Inludes: a pentose sugar, nitrogenous base and a phosphate group
  • In RNA - pentose sugar is ribose
  • In DNA - pentose sugar is deoxyribose (one less oxygen atom)
  • Phosphate group comes from the inorganic phosphates found in the cytoplasm
  • Nitrogenous bases include: Adenosine, Guanine, Cytosine and Thymine in DNA
  • In RNA, Thymine is replaced with Uracil
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Purines and Pyrimidines

Purines and Pyrimidines


Have two nitrogenous rings.

Bases: A, G


Have one nitrogenous ring


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  • Three phosphate groups - provides the energy
  • When energy is needed, hydrolysis reaction removes the third phosphate bond  with the use of the enzyme ATPase, , leaving ADP.
  • Inorganic phosphates free in the cytoplasm are then used to join by condensation reaction and form ATP. Energy is needed to drive this redox reaction.
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