ATP

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  • ATP
    • Why is energy important?
      • plant & animal cells need energy for biological processes to occur
    • Adenosine triphosphate
      • plant & animal cells release energy from glucose - respiration
        • cell can't get energy directly from glucose
          • so in respiration, the energy from glucose is used to make ATP
      • made from nucleotide base adenine, combined with ribose sugar & 3 phosphate groups
      • known as nucleotide derivative - modified form of nucleotide
      • once made - diffuses to part of cell that needs energy
      • energy stored is in  high energy bonds between phosphate groups
        • released via hydrolysis reactions
    • Making & using ATP
      • when energy is needed by cell, ATP is broken down into ADP & Pi (inorganic phosphate)
        • hydrolysis reaction
          • phosphate bond broken & energy released
          • reaction is catalysed by enzyme ATP hydrolase
          • ATP hydrolysis can be coupled to other energy-requiring reactions in cell - means energy released can be used directly to make coupled rreaction happen, rather than being lost as heat
        • released inorganic phosphate can be put to use
          • can be added to another compound (phosphorylation) which often makes compound more reactive
      • ATP can be resynthesised in condensation reaction between ADP & Pi
        • happens during both respiration & photosynthesis & is catalysed by enzyme ATP synthase

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