The Nazi Party
Hitler was the undisputed leader by 1922. He was an excellent orator, had a powerful personality, was clever and decisive.
In 1921, Hitler set up his own private army to 'protect speekers'. They were called the stroom trooper (SA) and were run by Ernst Rohm. They were former freikorps and wore brown shirts.
Hitler personally designed the swastika flag, it was the same as the kaiser's banners.
Josef Goebbels wasn't part of WWI, he had a crippled foot. He was small and weak, but a good speaker and intelligent. He first opposed Hitler when he joined in 1922, but then became an influential supporter.
The 25-point programme
- To abolish the treaty of Versailles
- It was hated by many Germans
- Unite Germany and Austria
- Austria was seen as part of germany, and people wanted to unite
- Only 'true' germans to live in germany, especially not jews
- People were jealous of jews for their sucsess
- Large industries and buisnesses to be nationalised
- It would create jobs and this was an industry that was doing well, and others were'nt as well off
- Generous provision for pensioners
- Pensioners would be glad and vote for them
- Strong central government in germany
- Current government seen as weak, people wanted guidance like under the Kaiser
Why the Nazis were gaining popularity by 1920
- 1918 Ebert was unpopular from the vary start, people hated the treaty of versailles (1919)
- The government couldn't stop the communist revolutions (1918), the sparacist revolution (1919) and the kapp putsch made the goverment look really weak
- The government was blamed for the invasion of the ruhr and hyperinflation
- Hitler was an extremely powerful orator and able to influence people. He made them lsten and filled them with ideas and hope
- Nazis gave people exactly what they wanted in their propaganda- someone to blame
- They had decided to overthrow the unpopular treaty
- Their 25 point programme gave the impression Germany was getting back on it's feet
The Munich Putsch
- On November 8th 1923 Hitler decided to topple the government because they were weak and dealing with the economic crisis in the ruhr
- On that day, Hitler hijacked a local government meeting and said he was taking over the Bavarian government with old war hero Ludendoff
- Nazi SA took over official buildings, but the next day, the government hit back and 16 Nazis were killed and Hitler fled in a car, while Ludendoff stayed
- Hitler had miscalculated, the mood of the people was wrong and they didn't support him.
- He was arrested and charged with treason, but he gained enormous publicity and was let off lightly because he impressed the judges, and eventually only served 9 months
- He wrote Mein Kampf in this time and became very well known
- The Nazis remained a minority party and Hitler decided to gain power legally