Indian Rights Association (IRA)
- Founded in 1882.
- Aimed to 'civilise' Native Americans through assimilation.
- Very influential on 1930s federal government policy.
- Had very little understanding of Native American cultures and way of life.
- Although their actions were well-intentioned, they were ultimately harmful to Native Americans.
- They lobbied politicians, monitored the actions of the Indian Agents and attempted to educate the public about native issues.
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Society of American Indians (SAI)
- Founded 1911 as group of 50 educated, fairly assimilated Native American men and women.
- First attempt at an inter-tribal pressure group.
- Campaigned for:
- improved education
- better health provision
- DID NOT CAMPAIGN FOR LAND RIGHTS/SELF-DETERMINATION (because the society members themselves disagreed).
- Limited impact, because of infighting, lack of mass support and lack of funds.
- Short-lived - collapsed in the 1920s.
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American Indian Defense Association (AIDA)
- A group of writers and anthropologists, founded 1923 by John Collier.
- Campaigned for:
- Land rights.
- Religious and cultural freedoms..
- Set up to block the1921 and 1923 Levitt Bill (the Dance Order).
- Influential (but not influential enough) in the formation of the Indian Reorganisation Bill that became the 1934 Wheeler-Howard Act.
- Failed to force federal government to abandon assimilation policy.
- Collier was disappointed about NA reaction - he hadn't consulted them enough.
- Some aims were unrealistic:
- government didn't have the money to buy back native lands it had sold off.
- Assimilation wasn't going to be abandoned so easily.
- John Collier was appointed Commissioner for Indian Afffairs 1933.
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National Congress of American Indians (NCAI)
- Founded 1944 in response to initial attempts at Termination - the beginning of a Native American protest movement.
- Worked through courts (like NAACP).
- Aims - to challenge:
- Employment discrimination.
- Inequality in education.
- Harrison v Laveen (1948) - the NCAI collaborated in this case and won it. This reversed the states' use of voting qualifications to ban Native Americans from voting.
- Won several victories by the 1960s, including defeating a bill in 1954 that would have led to states taking control of civil and criminal jurisdiction over Native Americans.
- Obtained a pledge from JFK to develop the reservations, but then he died.
- Pursued a policy of non-protest, which led to it being labelled as 'old-fashioned' by the younger generation of the 1960s.
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National Indian Youth Council (NIYC)
- Founded 1961 to pursue civil rights for American Indians, because of frustration at older NCAI's more conservative methods.
- Part of the Red Power movement
- Focused on fishing and land rights in the North-West.
- Used litigation and fish-ins as its main forms of protest.
- 1968 - fish-in in Washington State.
- 1970s - filed suits protecting reservation land from exploitation for mineral resources.
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American Indian Movement (AIM)
- Founded 1968.
- Most militant protest organisation.
- Campaigned about:
- Racism against Native Americans - patrol the streets like the Black Panthers.
- 'Native Sovereignty' - land/fishing rights, self-determination.
- Worked through large-scale protests or media stunts, as well as litigation.
- Siege of Alcatraz 1969 (led by Richard Oakes and Adam Fortunate Eagle Nordwell)
- Occupation of Mt Rushmore 1971.
- Occupation of the Bureau of Indian Affairs 1972 following the arrival of the 'Trail of Broken Treaties' caravan.
- 1973 Occupation at Wounded Knee.
- 1975 Pine Ridge Reservation shootout.
- Divisive through its violence.
- Inspired a lot of the 'Red Power' movement.
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Native American Rights Fund (NARF)
- Founded 1970 to defend tribal culture:
- hunting and fishing rights
- reinstate pre-termination tribal statuses
- freedom of worship
- burial rights
- to train young Native Americans as specialised attorneys.
- 1974 Oneida v Oneida and Madison Counties, NY - Oneida tribe should get its land back
- 1976 Fisher v Montana - right of tribal courts to decide on all Native American adoption cases established
- 1980 US v Sioux - Sioux entitled to monetary compensation for the loss of the Black Hills of Dakota, the Sioux refuse the money and continue to pursue the case.
- 1982 Seminole Tribe v Butterworth - right of tribes to have casinos on their reservations, even in non-gambling states established.
- 1986 Charrier v Bell - Remains from Louisiana burial ground returned to Native American community. Sets a precedent for 1990 Native American Graves Protection Act
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