Music gcse: And the glory of the lord

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Handel: And the glory of the lord

From the messiah ( an oratorio)It is a chorusWritten in 1741 Tonality=Mostly in A majoir ( hints at E and B majoir) Instrumentation=SATB choir , violin,viola,cello,Basso continuo (traditionally harpsichord) The instruments double the vocal parts ( unison) Harmony= Ends with a plagal cadence , plagal cadence at bars 16-17 Texture = Homophonic  Rhythm= 3/4 throughout, varied rhythm, but uses straight rather than swung/syncopated,  Melody = Imitation, melisma, word painting, sequences (repeated patterns going up and down in step) Based on 4 main melodic ideas (motifs) Structure= Intro uses 'ritornello'( little return) First motif = 'And the glory of the lord' = mainly syllabic Second motif =Decsending sequences , melismatic Third motif = thin vocal texture compared to the four part homophonic sections  Fourth motif = Unison for the first 5 bars then harmont for last 2, strong dotted minims add weight and gravitas to the statement

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Mozart-1st movement from symphony no.40 in G minor

Classical period In sonata form Exposition (1-100) Development (101-164) Recapitulation(164-299) Instrumentation= Small orchestra , strings , French horns ,oboes, flutes'clarinets'(added in at later date) Dynamics= starts with p , alter depending how many instruments playing Tonality=Begins in g minor,second sub Bb majoir, dev F sharp, recap Eb maj,Fmin,Dmaj ,ends in g majoir  Structure= No intro, 4 movements- exp, dev, recap , coda  Melody =Made up of subjects, mainly on strings , uses falling phrases,imitation, uses sequences, uses chromaticisim in decsending phrases, use of scalic passages,mixture of conjunct and disjunct Rhythm= 4/4 , molto allegro Harmony= a pedal is used to mean a repeated note ( In this case g)

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Chopin- Raindrop Prelude no.15 in Db majoir

The romantic period 1820-1900 Structure= Ternary form(ABA) Section A: 1-27 Section B :28-75 Section A (shortend,repeated) 76-81 Coda: 81-89 Harmony= Repeated Ab's/G sharps in left hand represent raindrops Texture=Melody and chords: homophonic Rhythm= 4/4 Sostenuto-sustained , slow ,held back tempo.Ritenuto at end-slows down Timbre= Pedal used alot to sustain notes  Melody= Falling motifs , like raindrops, Ornamentaion used, melody swaps to left hand in section B. Tonality= Section A in Db majoir , section B in C# sharp minor Piece ends with perfect cadence Instrumentaion= Piano

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Peripetite - Arnold Schoenberg ( dunununul DUUUUUU

Expressionism 1900's Instrumentaion= Written for a full orchestra  Harmony=Use of dissonance to create tension and unease Pitch=Lots of extremes , creates tension Tonality= Atonal  Texture=Homophonic bursts(section a) Dynamics= Much range of dynamimc contrast ( create drama and excitement)extremes from pp to ff Melody= no main melody,uses melodic fragments based on hexachord, KLANGFARBENMELODIE, lots of disjunct parts (large leaps) Rhythm= Marked very fast, use diminuition

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Electric counterpoint (3rd movement) Steve Reich

AOS 2 Music in the 20th century Minimalism lots of technology used -looping (to build texture) , panning (to seperate out strummed guitar parts) Harmony=uses broken chords aswell as strummed chords, complex chords produced because of layerd melodies Melody=built around short patterns/riffs that repeat (ostinato) Texture= Polyphonic /countrapuntal Structure=(Section A=1-73) (Section B=74-113) ( Coda=114- 140)Section A- E minor  Section B - Swaps E/C minor Tonality= Modal , key is uncertain Instrumentation = Pre-recorded electric guitars, bass guitars , live peice performed by one person Rhythm =Cross-rhythms from parts using note addition/ subtraction Dynamics= Frequent changes in dynamics , parts fade in and out regularly, ends ff 

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Something's coming - Leonard Bernstein

AOS 2 music in the 20th century Style= musical theatre Instrumentation = Full orchestra including saxaphones, a large percussion section, electric guitar , mandolin, male solo voice ( about 30 players in total ) Harmony= Uses tritones -clash and are used for a dramatic effect , diatonic  Pitch= highest note is G Tonality= D majoir to reflect happy , positive thoughts on what might happen, strong use of tonic and dominant  Timbre = Voice has a breathy excited feel to it  Melody = Word setting is mostly syllabic , word painting ( cannon balling) uses alot of short riffs  Texture= Layerd textures, short snappy phrases and long notes(crecendos) Dynamics = dynamics used for dramatcis effect , starts quietly to start anticipating scene Rhythm= Latinb american rhythm's, cross rhythm's,in 3/4 but has a 6/8 feeling, syncopated rhythm's

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All Blues - Miles Davis

AOS 3 populr music in context  Style = Modal jazz Dynamics= Subdued , mostly mf Melody = solos based on improvistaion on scales, 4 improvised solos trumpet , saxes and piano, uses blue notes  Rhythm=  Marked jazz waltz , moderate in pace , in 6/4, syncopation by accenting off beats Pitch = mid and lower pitches , creates mellow feel texture= Simple , to give soloists more freedom structure= Intro - bars 1-8 , lead 1 -Bars 9-24 , lead 2 -Bars 25-40, solo sections - bars 41-224 , lead - bars 225- 256, coda - bars 257-268/9

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Grace - Jeff Buckley

AOS 3 popular music in context  Technology= Distortion , power chords , drone synth strings , use of tremelo arms , telephone effect , delay, paralell chords Instrumentation=Electric guitars , bass guitar , drums , acoustic guitar , synthesizers Structure= intro , verse 1 , pre chorus , chorus , link , verse 2 , pre chorus , chorus , middle 8 , link , verse 3  Melody = word painting , melisma, vocalisation , slides  tonality = not clear at start , largely in E minor , but D majoir used in inro  Timbre= falsetto used ( vocals) ,vibrato , broken chords , guitar, , humming  Rhythm=12/8 , 64bpm pitch =wide vocal range  dynamics =starts quietly , increases in volume as more instruments are added 

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Why does my heart feel so bad -Moby

AOS 3 popular music in context  Technology = loops , samples , synth pad , echo/reverb, delay , telephone effect  Rhythm= 4/4 tempo=98bpm , piano chords used as rhythmic function  tonality = key- a minor , some major bits  melody = based on the samples , mainly pentatonic  instrumentation = synthesizer , sampled vocals ( others ) harmony = opening chord sequence established in intro , repeated chord patterns,  texture = builds as other instruments are added 

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Skye waulking song - cappercaille

AOS 4 World music Tempo= 12/8 , several layers of rhythm's -polyrhythmic  instrumentaion=keyboard , drum kits , fiddle , electric bass , uileann pipes , bouzouki, wurlitzer piano  structure=2 main i deas, using different chord sequences - strophic - has the same melody for each section , but different words melody = alto vocalist, freely sung , based on e minor , instruments improvise around  melody ( folk feature) pentatonic scale  harmony=simple harmony -uses only 4 chords  dynamics=quiet in first section , build up in second style =fusion- combining more than one musical style or culture =folk + pop rock  texture =heterophonic , contrapuntal , monophonic 

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KOKO -yiri

AOS 4 world music  tempo=starts in free tempo , alot of intro built on two bar phrases rhythm=use of rhythmic fields, cross rhythm's instrumentation= = djembe , donno , dundun,vocals , balafone, flute , tam-tam , maracas  melody=simple melodies using limited number of pitches  harmony/tonality = close to Gb majoir , chorus voices in unison dynamics=soft dynamic to start with which increases with addition of instruments and building of texture  style = african drumming  texture = starts off monophonic ( solo balaphone) second balaphone joins in octaves with different pitches creating heterophony . call and response , polyrhythmic texture  

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Rag desh

AOS 4 world music  melody= improvised notes from the rag scale  melody - the rag-often pentatonic rhythm=played on tabla drums , based on rhythmic cycles called tala sections: ALAP; tempo =slow and medatitive,improvised , sets the mood JHOR: tempo=steady/medium, real sense of regular pulse established , music becomes more elaborate  JHALLA =fast / lively , fast pulse , exciting/lively, high point in piece  BANDISH tempo= moderate to fast fixed composition is finally introduced , musical dialoue between instrumentalists and drummer 

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