Music GCSE

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Baroque

-1600-1750

-tonal music

-sudden changes in dynamics

-simple harmonies

-continuous bass part - played by organ, harpsichord, cello, double bass, bassoon, etc...

-flutes/strings/recorder/oboe

-not much, if any brass

-often contrapuntal/polyphonic texture

-composers used ternary for in Arias 

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Classical

-1750-1820

-fewer ornaments

-wrote in binary, ternary, rondo and variation forms, also sonata forms

-more subtle dynamics

-piano invented in 1700, composers loved it

-orchestras got bigger

-Classical composers used ternary form in symphonies

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Ternary Form

-three sections

-each section repeats (AABBAA)

-A ends in the home key with a perfect cadence -

B modulates to a related key and then returns to the home key

-last section is the same as A or slightly varied

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Binary Form

-two sections

-usually for Baroque dances like gavottes, minuets, bourees etc...

-each section is repeated

-section B contrasts with A

-contrasts are often modulation to related keys

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Handel - And The Glory Of The Lord - (Messiah)

-German composer

-1685-1759

-major key, A major, modulates to E major twice and B major once

-homophonic texture

-some is polyphonic

-Allegro, quick and lively

-4 main musical ideas. 1st - Altos. 2nd - Tenors. 3rd - Altos. 4th - Tenors and Basses

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Textures

Homophonic - all parts move together

Monophonic - a single melodic line with no accompaniment

Heterophonic

Polyphonic - parts weave in and out of each other, two or more independent parts

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