Muscles and Movement

Everything you need to know about muscles and movement for AS OCR PE

  • Created by: Jade
  • Created on: 17-01-11 12:04

Key words

origin - point of attachment of a muscle that remains relatively fixed during muscular contraction

insertion - point of attachment of a muscle that moves towards the orgiin

antagonistic muscle action - one muscle shortens another lengthens during movement

agonist muscle/prime mover - muscle directly responsible for movement of a joint

antagonist muscle - muscle that has an action opposite to that of the agonist and prduces coordinated movement

fixator muscle - allows the agonist to work by stabilising the origin of the agonist

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types of muscular contraction

concentric contraction(isotonic) - muscle shortens under tension, occurs in agonist muscle

eccentric contraction(isotonic) - muscle lengthens under tension, occurs in antagonistic muscle

isometric contraction - increase in muscle tension but no change in length, occurs in fixator muscle

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Muscle Fibre types

slow oxidative fibres (SO type 1) structural: - red, small, low glycogen stores

functional: - slow contractile speed, high aeroibc capacity, low anaerobic capacity

Fast oxidative Glycolytic fibres (FOG type 2 a) structural: - red to pink, intermediate, intermediate glycogen stores

functional: fast contractile speed, moderate aerobic capacity, high anaerobic capacity

Fast Glycolytic fibres (FG type 2 b) structural: - white, large, high glycogen stores

function: - fast contractile speed, low aerobic capacity, hight anaerobic capacity

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Physiological effects of a warm up

warm up - light aeroic exercise prior to exercise

  • greater contraction speed
  • faster contraction speed
  • higher muscle temperature
  • improved co ordination between antagonistic pairs
  • increase in enzyme activity
  • reduced risk on injury
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