Multistore Memory Model

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Mark Scheme

A01

·         Historical context of theory (e.g. information theory)

·         Structure and processes of the multistore model)

A02

·         Evidence for the multistore model (empirically based research and case studies)

·         Evidence against the multistore model (levels of processing, working memory

·         Criticial examination of empirical evidence for and against MSM

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Atkinson and Shriffin (1968) Sensory Memory

·         Constantly receiving messages

·         Most get no attention

·         Only in the store for brief periods of time

·         Sperling (1960) participants were shown a grid of letters and numbers for 50 milliseconds, they could not remember all, but one line 75% of the time

·         Information decays rapidly 

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Short Term Memory

·         Present or immediate part memories

·         Will decay if not rehearsed

·         Miller (1956) Limited capacity of 7+- 2

·         Maintenance rehearsal allows transfer to LTM

·         Usually acoustic

·         Peterson and Peterson (1959) 90% recall after 3 seconds, 2% after 18 showing when prevented from rehearsing, STM is poor

·         Jacobs (1887) 9.3 items for numbers, 7.3 for letters

·         Cowan (2001) more likely to be 4 rather than 7

·         Baddeley (1996a/b) acoustically similar words get confused in the STM whereas semantically similar ones do in the LTM showing different encoding processes

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Long Term Memory

·         More distant past memories

·         Direct relationship between the amount of rehearsal and the strength of the LTM

·         Potentially unlimited capacity and duration

·         Normally semantic

·         Squire et al (1992) hippocampus is active when recalling LTM

·         Scoville and Milner (1957) HM could not created new LTM when his hippocampus was removed showing it is perhaps the gateway to LTM

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Long Term Memory

·         More distant past memories

·         Direct relationship between the amount of rehearsal and the strength of the LTM

·         Potentially unlimited capacity and duration

·         Normally semantic

·         Squire et al (1992) hippocampus is active when recalling LTM

·         Scoville and Milner (1957) HM could not created new LTM when his hippocampus was removed showing it is perhaps the gateway to LTM

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Evaluation

+ historically the first testable memory model

-oversimplification

- STM and LTM are more independent

- evidence lacks validity 

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