• Created by: Mui
  • Created on: 17-04-13 18:34


Baby boom meant a demand for labour resulting in mass immigration from former colonies (generating the idea of post-colonianism)

Most of these immigrants brought their cultures and families with them permanently, reinforing their traditions with the growing air travel

Doubts are raised over legitamacy given to immigrant social traditions, in the USA, Irish immigrants religion and language posed a threat to Americas monolingual culture

Influx of South American immigrants reignited this issue, even public schools with 100% hispanic, an intervention was made to prevent Spanish as a medium in public schools

Key to individuals existence is their identity as a member of a group (identity politics), each group/community is of equal moral value, no dominant culture

Pluralism was developed as a response to racism in USA, 'particularism' is a distinct way of defining a community e.g. through language or ethnicity

Concerns about religion particularly Islam dominates, with members becoming more concious of this identity

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Minority Rights

Minority rights is liberal concept on invididual liberty and rights except to society as a whole, minorities should have rights that cant be denied by majority section of society

This concept grew out of pluralism, if minorities are of equal value to everyone then they too should have equal rights

Civil right acts (1964) in the USA wouldnt solely cure every issues face by poverty stricken African-Ameikhans... Affirmative action was public policy specifically to assist development of discriminated communities to make them more equal with society (positive discrimination)


- Liberals believe this imposes a collectivist view of the world on society

- Individuals are forced into an identity chosen by community leaders

- Feminists argue public bodies defer pratices such as arranged marriage as 'community cultural values' in fear of being branded racist

- Collectivist view infringes freedom of speech evident by Islamic communities branding Salman Rushdies controversial book as insulting, nothing should be exempt from scrutiny

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Representation of society should reflect its comprisement in all forms of employment

Diversity is criticised for undermining homogenity of an nation therefore creating tension

Immigrants have two ways in adjusting themselves to the host community... Principles of integration - migrants adopt practices of host community and Assimilation - Migrants absorb into host communities

Diversity is said to be beneficial as it increases range of experiences and cultural inputs such as Bhangra in the UK... Dull conformism was warned by John Stuart Mill

Peception of the world is enlarged through diversity, and reduces prejuidice... Diverse cultures tend to be tolerant and lack tension

Obama stressed in his inaugaration said diversity was a strength of American diversity 

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Liberal multiculturalism

Key liberal principle of tolerance, ideas languages and cultures are of equal worth

Tolerance argues against extreme forms of integration and assimilation, so long as they obey the laws of the land

UKs open free society means inadvisable practices will fall off due to new ideas

Hijab in the UK is fine so long as it complies with rules as its the autonomous decision by the individual, France sees it as a attack on the secularist 'republican values'

France argues the hijab is symbolic of womens oppression so its not the individuals free choice (toleration cant be extended to intolerant activities)

^ same justification for racist language 

What individuals do in private sphere, in public life they cant impose anti-individualistic practices such as forced marriages

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Pluralist multiculturalism

Theres no single route to an ideal form of society, an abscene of moral relativism (standards to judge behaviour)

Any act can be legitimate regardless if it violates views of majority 

Liberal values of the West is just another form of system competing against authoritarian ideologies 

Parekh argues societies are too complex to have universal values

Different forms of organisation are needed for stability of societies such as Julius Nyere single party state to maintain Africa socialism, and are equally legitimate to Western liberal democracy 

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Cosmopolitan multiculturalism

Cosmopilitanism - pick n mix of different cultures or collisions of cultures creates a fusion

Large number of cultures come into contact with each other and this produces a culture of its own

For the fusion to occure preceding culturs must be capable of interaction with each other

Diversity of culture has to consist of free and equal entities to prevent one culture becoming dominant 

Diversity is necessary for this fusion, such as the creation of Jazz music

Individuals make cultural choices offered such as food

True cosmapolitanism implies a totally new identity, similat to US moto E Pluribus Unum

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Criticism of multiculturalism #LibsandCons

Commutarianism - bonds are crucial to bind society together, it places emphasis on relations of identity such as family and ethnicity


- it violates universal values by promoting a collective image of society... individuals values supposedly simply derive from being members of a community (commutarianism) 

- freedom of speech is under threat due to desire to protect communities by banning books

- gives opportunity to anti-liberal authoritarian ideologies to make inroads in society


- oraganic societies developed through centuries being decimated by immigrants who dont share those values 

- its impossible to identify with national history as they have their own narrative and heritage

- equal moral value of immigrants simply undermines heritage of host community

- lack of respect to the host communities heritage results in a reaction and social disorder

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Criticism of multiculturalism #FemsandSocialists


- legitimising imported patriarchal values under pluralist multiculturalism e.g. female circumcision

- European dress is essential feature of personal liberation

- Extended to religion attitudes towards gays and lesbians


- marginalises class as a determinant of social progress

- identity politics diverts the working class from attacking economic exploitation

- multiculturalism can end up as little more than a celebration of the growth of middle class from minority groups

- use of ethnic representative to gain vote of electorate from community in hopes they'll deliver jobc etc. to their own community, instead the use it for continued political success

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