F W Taylor
Motivation; the desire to complete a tast and achieve a postivie result
- Workers were motivated by money
- To maximise efficiency, according to Talyor could generate the profit in order to pay workers a higher wage. His preferred method of payment was piece rate.
Found that there weas more to motivation than just pay
Believed in breaks and rest periods and the need for employees to socially interact, this improved communication, leading to a higher output.
Created the hierachy of needs
Beleived that everyone has the same needs which can be put into a hierarchy of importance.
Concerned with factors affection job dis/satisfaction. Factors that led to job disatisfaction were given the name "hygiene factors." Factors that led to job satisfaction were motivators.
- Salaries, wages and benefits
- Company policy and admin
- Inter-personal realtionships
- Quality of superivision
- Job Security
- Working conditions
- Work/life balance
- Sense of personal achievement
- Stauts/ responsibility/ recgonition
- Promotion/ challenging & stimulating work
Motivating Financial Methods
Pay : Higher wages, may receive a pay rise as a reward for good work over a time period.
Bonuses: Reward for reaching targets. Performance related pay is a financial reward for empoyees working above and beyond. Appraisal systmes. Unfair if management reward through favouritsm.
Commission: Payment of commission as a remuneration for services rendered or products sold is a way to reward sales people. Payments are often calculated on the basis of a percentage of the goods sold. A disadvantage of commission is that a sales person may be competent but the economic climate could affect their sales.
Profit-sharing: Provide staff with a share of the firms annual profit. This puts staff in the same position as shareholders. Can motivate as they may have previously believeed profit as shareholders taking pay from their profits. Can make employees feel more involved in the running of the business.
Fringe benefits: Rewards above basic pay such as, company cars, memberships to clubs or gyms, health care, discounts on company products. Usually put in place to encourage staff loyalty and improve human relations. opportunity cost as money spent on these could be reinvested in the company elsewhere.
Improving Job Design
Job Enlargement: a job desing in which the number of tasks associated with a job is increased to add greater variety to activities to reduce monotony.
- Reduces boredom
- Less repetition
- No skills training required
- Can result in more efficient workforce
- Increases motivation
- Variety of skills can be obtained
- Greater workforce flexibility
- Increased work burden
- Employees may not have skills-> demotivation
- Doing more work for the same pay
- Decrease in job satisfaction
Process of improving work prcesses; is an attempt to motivate employees by giving them the opportunity to use a range of their abilities.
- Increase productivity
- Sense of loyalty and recognition
- Increase motivation
- Reduces boredom
- Increase job satisfaction
- Increased workload
- Lack of training->lead to poor performance
- Can encourage employee rivalry
A technique in which employees are moved between two or more jobs. The object is to expose employees to different experiences and a wider variety of skills.
- Avoids monotony
- Job enlargement
- Job enrichment
- Develop new skills
- Training costs
- Reduces uniformity in quality
- Worry over job securit
- Frequent interruptiom
Maximised staff satisfaction and involvement by organising employees into small groups or teams, THese teans should include members that are mulit skilled so eeryone can contribute, shared objectives can be achieved together and so creates a positive Kaizen attitude.
- One worker is absent, another can fill in their role
- Can use other ideas and skills
- Fulfils social needs
- Some employees work better independantly
- Can reduce productivity