Highlights different structures, makes them appear darker or different in colour so you can identify them. - Leishman's/Wright's Stain
One millionth of a metre 1/1000 of a mm
cell with a true nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.
Reaction which involves a hydrogen atom from one molecule and an OH molecule from other to form water.
When water is added.
the number and sequence of amino acids in a polypetide chain
Twisting and coiling of polypeptide chains to form different shapes, held by hydrogen bonds... alpha-helix and beta pleated sheet.
Polypeptide chains form a 3-D shape, bonds form between the R groups. Several bonds hold the structure together such as: weak hydrogen bonds, strong disulfide bonds, ionic bonds and hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions.
Proteins that contain more than one polypeptide chain.
When (temperature) increases the molecule vibrates so much that the weak hydrogen bonds are broken causing the shape to change.
Has areas of negative and positive charges
The net movement of a substance from a region where it is in higher concentration to a region where it is in lower concentration.
Passive process where molecules has to diffuse through the plasma membrane with the help of proteins.
The movement of water molecules from a region of high water potential to a region of lower water potential across a selectively permeable membrane.
Solution with a lower water potential than the cell
A solution with a higher water potential than the cell
A solution with the same water potential as a cell
Postively charged ions
is the movement of a substance across a cell membrane against its concentration gradient, using energy from ATP.
Vesicle moves towards membrane
Vesicles fuses with membrane
Molecules released to outside cell
Molecules move to membrane surface
Membrane invaginates and forms a vesicle around the molecules
Vesicle moves into cytoplasm
Simple sugars e.g. glucose
Two monosaccharides can be joined together to make a disaccharide.
Are formed when many monosaccharides join together by a condensation reactions
Group of molecules that include fats, oils and cholesterol
Saturated (fatty acids)
Single carbon-carbon bonds, saturated with hydrogen atoms.
Unsaturated (fatty acid)
Double carbon-carbon bonds, not enough room for man hydrogen atoms in the chain.
Main energy storage molecule in the human body:
Stores vitamins A and D
Thromboplastin catalyses prothrombin -> thrombin
Are substances that are needed for an enzyme-controlled reaction to occur.
Contains everything: erythrocytes, leucocytes, platelets, plasma etc ; severe blood loss
As many of the leucocytes removed ; can use for people after transfusions
Packed red cells
Just red blood cells; tranfusions, childbirth, anaemia, surgery
Bone marrow failure, following transplants, chemotherapy and patients with leukaemia
Helps the blood to clot ; haemophilla
All blood cells have been removed; childbirth, cardiac surgery