Molecules, Blood and Gas Exchange Keywords

Revision cards for unit one Human Biology: Key words and terms.

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Differential Stain

Highlights different structures, makes them appear darker or different in colour so you can identify them. - Leishman's/Wright's Stain

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Micrometre

One millionth of a metre 1/1000 of a mm

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Eukaryotic Cell

cell with a true nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.

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Condensation reaction

Reaction which involves a hydrogen atom from one molecule and an OH molecule from other to form water. 

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Hydrolysis

When water is added. 

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Primary Structure

the number and sequence of amino acids in a polypetide chain

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Secondary structure

Twisting and coiling of polypeptide chains to form different shapes, held by hydrogen bonds... alpha-helix and beta pleated sheet.

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Tertiary Structure

Polypeptide chains form a 3-D shape, bonds form between the R groups. Several bonds hold the structure together such as: weak hydrogen bonds, strong disulfide bonds, ionic bonds and hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions.

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Quaternary Structure

Proteins that contain more than one polypeptide chain.

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Denature

When (temperature) increases the molecule vibrates so much that the weak hydrogen bonds are broken causing the shape to change. 

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Non-Polar

no charge

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Polar

Has areas of negative and positive charges

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Diffusion

The net movement of a substance from a region where it is in higher concentration to a region where it is in lower concentration. 

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Facilitated Diffusion

Passive process where molecules has to diffuse through the plasma membrane with the help of proteins. 

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Osmosis

The movement of water molecules from a region of high water potential to a region of lower water potential across a selectively permeable membrane. 

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Hypertonic

Solution with a lower water potential than the cell 

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Hypotonic

A solution with a higher water potential than the cell 

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Isotonic

A solution with the same water potential as a cell

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Cations

Postively charged ions

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Active Transport

is the movement of a substance across a cell membrane against its concentration gradient, using energy from ATP. 

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Exocytosis

Vesicle moves towards membrane

Vesicles fuses with membrane 

Molecules released to outside cell 

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Endocytosis

Molecules move to membrane surface 

Membrane invaginates and forms a vesicle around the molecules 

Vesicle moves into cytoplasm

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Monosaccharides

Simple sugars e.g. glucose 

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Disaccharides

Two monosaccharides can be joined together to make a disaccharide. 

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Polysaccharides

Are formed when many monosaccharides join together by a condensation reactions

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Lipids

Group of molecules that include fats, oils and cholesterol 

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Saturated (fatty acids)

Single carbon-carbon bonds, saturated with hydrogen atoms. 

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Unsaturated (fatty acid)

Double carbon-carbon bonds, not enough room for man hydrogen atoms in the chain.

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Triglycerides

Main energy storage molecule in the human body:

insoluble

insulating 

Stores vitamins A and D

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Blood proteins

Thromboplastin catalyses prothrombin -> thrombin 

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Cofactors

Are substances that are needed for an enzyme-controlled reaction to occur. 

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Whole blood

Contains everything: erythrocytes, leucocytes, platelets, plasma etc ; severe blood loss

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Leuco-depleted blood

As many of the leucocytes removed ; can use for people after transfusions

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Packed red cells

Just red blood cells; tranfusions, childbirth, anaemia, surgery 

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Platelets

Bone marrow failure, following transplants, chemotherapy and patients with leukaemia

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Clotting factors

Helps the blood to clot ; haemophilla

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Plasma

All blood cells have been removed; childbirth, cardiac surgery 

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