Name the four parts of the blood and their functions.
White blood cells - involved in immunity
Red Blood cells - carry oxygen around the body and have a large surface area to speed up gas exchange.
Platlets - blood clotting
Plasma - stawcoloured fuild that carried hormones
What do we do blood tests and what is the blood stained with during this process?
- Infection (morw white blood cells are infected)
- To see if you are anemic
- Drugs in the blood
- Blood groups
Blood is stained with leishmar or romanwsky.
What are red blood cells called?
What are white blood cells called and their groups?
RBC = ertyrocytes -
WBC = Leucocytes. Can be split into two groups: Phagocytes and lymphoytes,
Phagocytes engulf forgein particles in phagocytosis and can be split again into two groups: Neutophylls and Monocytes.
Neutophylls are granuals in the cytoplasm:
How would you work out this question:
20 cells, how many in 1mm3 of blood?
1/0.004 x 20
= 1mm3 of diolated blood is 20 cells in 0.004mm3
5000 x 200 Dilution of blood RED = X200 AND WHITE = X20
What is a hemocytometer and how do we use it?
A hemocytometer is a way of measuring white and red blood cells within a blood sample. The big squares are white blood cells whilst the red and the smaller ones.
We do not count any which fall on the east or south sides (the north west rule" and non which go over the lines.
The volume of a tripple lined square (RBC) is 0.004mm3 and the volume of a corner square (WBC) 0.01mm3.
How to we stain a blood film?
- Place a very small drop of blood near the end of a clean microscope slide.
- Place the end of another slide (the spreader) on the sample slide.
- Hold the spreader at an angle of about 30 degrees and push it along the slide, spreading the drop of blood as a smear.
- Label the slide with the patients details. Allow the slide to dry in the air, so the cells stick to the slide.
- Fix the slide using alcohol. This preserves the cells.
- Stain the slide using a Romanowsky stain such as Wright's or Leishman's stain. The stain is poured over the slide and left for about 2 minutes before it is washed off with water.
How do we calculate magnification?
Overall magnification = objective lens x eyepiece lens
Magnification = size of image / actual size of specimen
LOOK AT WORK TO SEE HOW TO CONVERT MIRCOCENTEMETERS!
Name the seven cell organelles and their functions.
Mitocondria - (kidney beans with teeth) are where resperation happens.
O2 + C6 H12 06 - CO2 + H20 +ATP
Oxygen + Glucose - Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy
lie just outside the neuclus, hollow microtubes growth of spindel fibres and are need in cell division.
Endoplasmic Reticulum - Made up of membrane bound flattened sacks that are layered in sheets called sistenae. The Rough ER transports protiens and the Smooth ER makes lipids and steriods.
Ribosomes site of protien synthesis.
Gogli body - protiens are stored, packaged into cisterene then transfered in/out cell.
Lysosomes - filled with enzymes which will kill some/all of the cell if dysfunctional.
Plasma structure - Cilla (hairs at end) extention of surface area using cell membrane.
What does a plant cell have that an animal cell doesn't? (Three things)
Describe the collaboration between organelles
Enzymes are proteins. The genes which codes for the production of these proteins are held on DNA in the nucleus. A messenger molecule takes these codes to the ribosome on the rough ER. This is where the proteins are made. Then they are transported to the golgi apperatus where they are sorted, processed and packaged into vesicles. These make thier way up to the cell surface membrane where they fuse to release the protein from the cell. The energy need to make all this possible comes in the form of protiens which is made in the rough mitocondria.
What is the cell membrane used for and made up of?
The cell membrane is needed to control what water goes in and out of the cell and it controls it to stop it from bursting.
Cell membranes are made up of phospholipids which hyrodphobic (water hating+ploar) and hydrophillic (not attracted to water and non polar) molecules. They can form bilaters and is the basic structure of membranes. Gycoproteins (chains of charbohydrates) and are called Glycoproteins.
Cholesterol is also present and maintains the cells fluidity and in=creases stability of the membrane. (Fluid mosaic).
Describe the basic structure of the plasma membrane.
The basic structure of membranes.
Periperal protein on the inner surface: Globular protein.
Perpiheral protein on the outter suface - can be a lipid and have a group attached which are usually marker proteins.
Integral protein: the protein stretches the full width of the membrane and is sometimes called a channel protein.
Gycoprotein These are short chains which have charbohydrates attached to them.
Cytoskeleton- Allows movement of water within the membrane.