The 3 Main Minerals...
Contain Nitrogen for making Amino- Acids which is needed for Cell growth, If a plant cant get enough nitrates it will be stunted and will have yellow older leaves.
Contain Phosporus for making DNA and cell membranes and they are needed for respiration and growth. Plants without enough phosphate have poor root growth and purple older leaves.
To help the enzymes needed for photosynthesis and respiration. If there is not enough potassium in the soil, plants have poor flower and fruit growth and discoloured leaves.
Magnesium is also needed in small ammounts.
It is needed for making chlorophyll, which is needed for photosynethesis. Plants withous magnesium have yellow leaves.
How do Minerals Get in there?!
Active Transport: Minerals
This uses energy from respiration to help the plant pull minerals into the root hair against the concentration gradient. This is essential for growth.
Osmosis is the passage of water from a region of high water concentration through a semi-permeable membrane to a region of low water concentration.