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BIOLOGY REVISION

Levels of Organisation:

LEVEL 1 ­ Cells
Are the basic unit of structure and function in living things.
May serve a specific function within the organism
Examples- blood cells, nerve cells, bone cells, etc.
LEVEL 2 - Tissues
Made up of cells that are similar in structure and…

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Location Particles move From To
Gut Digested food products Gut cavity Blood in capillary of villus
Lungs Oxygen Alveolar air space Blood circulating around the lungs

Osmosis
Osmosis is the movement of water from a less concentrated solution to a more concentrated
solution through a partially permeable membrane.
E.g. Osmosis…

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Habitat The place where an organism lives

Population All of the members of one species living in an area

Community All the living things, animals and plants, living in a particular habitat

Ecosystem Habitat + Community



Use of Quadrats:
Quadrats should be placed randomly so that a representative sample is…

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together they form a food web.

















Pyramids of number, biomass and energy transfer













Transfer or substances and energy along a food chain:
In an ecosystem there is energy, and this is what allows the organisms to live. This energy
mainly comes from one original source: photosynthesis. The plants use this…

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Chlorofluorocarbons
1930 first produced by Thomas Midgely Junior
Used in air conditioning and spray deodorants
O-zone pollutant at ground level and blocks UV rays
Carbon Monoxide:
CO
Colourless, odourless + tasteless but highly toxic
Produced In petrol engines
Can cause acid rain
Used in WWII to gas people
Attaches to…

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Inorganic such as NPK drains into rivers and ponds causing plants to grow very
quickly. Then decomposing bacteria multiply rapidly to consume excess dead plant
and use up all the oxygen in the water. Sewage has a similar affect. This is
EUTROPHICATION.
Oil
Oil spills from tankers, ships dumping and…

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CARBON CYCLE

























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Nutrition in Humans
Carbohydrates:
Elements- C, H, O
Functions:
Energy
Structural (Cellulose Cell Wall in Plants)

Types:
1. Monosaccharides ­ Simple Sugars
2. Disaccharides ­ Complex Sugars
3. Polysaccharides

Monosaccharides
Properties: Sweet tasting, white crystals, soluble in water.
Function: Quick energy supply
TEST ­ BENEDICTS SOLUTION 85°C = BLUE
TO…

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Properties: Insoluble, tasteless, large molecules
Functions: Food store, Structural Carbohydrates
Formula: C6H12O6 x 3000
E.g.
Cellulose ­ Straight, no branches, structural cell.
Glycogen ­ Coiled molecules, more branches, food store in ANIMALS, stored in
muscle and liver.
Starch ­ Coiled molecules, branches, food store in PLANTS. TEST ­ IODINE =…

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Properties ­ High-energy store/content, insoluble in water, less dense than water

Formula/structure: 2 parts ­
Glycerol x 1
Fatty Acid x3













Types
1. Saturated ­ Animal Fats
2. Unsaturated ­ Plant Fats





Functions:
Energy Store
Thermal Insulation
Electrical Insulation
Mechanical Insulation
Buoyancy

TEST ­ Dissolve in Ethanol, then water =…

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Hannah

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thank you thank you thank you ***

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