Professionals look at points at which a child masters a skill that is linked to their age - development milestones e.g. running at 18 months.
at 18 months - gross motor skills should be well developed - able to walk without using objects to balance, 2 year olds to kick a balland walk up + down the stairs.
fine motor skills - drawing, painting e.g. at 2 years old, toddlers will have good hand-eye coordinating.
- involves the growth of baby tissues
- bones, muscles, organ systems become bigger to erform more complex actions
fine motor skills - smaller muscles
gross motor skills - larger muscles
- can build a lego tower with 10+ blocks
- fasten and undo buttons
- colour in pictures but not in lines
- can walk or run upstairs
- pedals and controls a tricycle carefully
- can throw, catch, bounce, kick and use a ball
- can balence on one foot and can hop
- learning depends on brain growth and stimulation of the brain and central nervous system by the five senses.
- brain growth during the earliest years of life is critical to cognitive development
How do children learn?
experimenting, trial and error, copying, exploring, repeating, looking, role-play, playing, listening, questioning, experiencing, talking
- use symbols in play
- believe toys share there thoughts
- beginning to learn concepts
- can count to three/five/ten
- uses tenses correctly - yesterday, tomorrow, today
- asks questions about everything
emotional development is the process of developing positive feelings about oneself, family, friends and the world.
every child is born with a temperament (sensitive, placid, passive agressive)
children need to develop a full range of feelings and learn to handle the feelings appropriately
- uses pretend play to gain control
- can watch a disney movie and relate to the character
- positive self-esteem
- complies with requests from parent/guardian
- can work alone for 20 minuites
- keeps focused on tasks
- shows ability to reflect on their actions
social development pregresses from being completely self-centred and dependent as an infant to becomming an independent adult
mature social skills include being able to make and keep friends, get along with others and work as a team
social development depends a lot on the relationship that is formed with the child's primary care providers.
- can play a game with rules
- shows attachment to friend/family
- understands sharing
- explains rules
- does not get aggressive
- apologies for their actions
- listens while others are speaking
- can say "please" and "thank you" with others