Professionals look at points at which a child masters a skill that is linked to their age - development milestones e.g. running at 18 months.

at 18 months - gross motor skills should be well developed - able to walk without using objects to balance, 2 year olds to kick a balland walk up + down the stairs.

fine motor skills - drawing, painting e.g. at 2 years old, toddlers will have good hand-eye coordinating.

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Physical Growth

  • involves the growth of baby tissues
  • bones, muscles, organ systems become bigger to erform more complex actions

fine motor skills - smaller muscles

gross motor skills - larger muscles

Fine Motor

  • can build a lego tower with 10+ blocks
  • fasten and undo buttons
  • colour in pictures but not in lines

Gross Motor

  • can walk or run upstairs
  • pedals and controls a tricycle carefully
  • can throw, catch, bounce, kick and use a ball
  • can balence on one foot and can hop
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Intellectual Growth

  • learning depends on brain growth and stimulation of the brain and central nervous system by the five senses.
  • brain growth during the earliest years of life is critical to cognitive development

How do children learn?

experimenting, trial and error, copying, exploring, repeating, looking, role-play, playing, listening, questioning, experiencing, talking

  • use symbols in play
  • believe toys share there thoughts
  • beginning to learn concepts
  • can count to three/five/ten
  • uses tenses correctly - yesterday, tomorrow, today
  • asks questions about everything
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Emotional Growth

emotional development is the process of developing positive feelings about oneself, family, friends and the world.

every child is born with a temperament (sensitive, placid, passive agressive)

children need to develop a full range of feelings and learn to handle the feelings appropriately

  • uses pretend play to gain control
  • can watch a disney movie and relate to the character
  • positive self-esteem
  • complies with requests from parent/guardian
  • can work alone for 20 minuites
  • keeps focused on tasks
  • shows ability to reflect on their actions
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Social Growth

social development pregresses from being completely self-centred and dependent as an infant to becomming an independent adult

mature social skills include being able to make and keep friends, get along with others and work as a team

social development depends a lot on the relationship that is formed with the child's primary care providers.

  • can play a game with rules
  • shows attachment to friend/family
  • understands sharing
  • explains rules
  • does not get aggressive
  • apologies for their actions
  • listens while others are speaking
  • can say "please" and "thank you" with others
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