middle east and climate change


Diversity and distribution lands

The Middle East is a diverse region unable to define the Middle East through ethnicity, religion or national identity as it is so diverse.

Between Europe,Asia,Africa

Rub’ Al Khali (the Empty Quarter) Desert that covers most of the southern third of the Arabian Peninsular

The Arabia Plate and Eurasia plate are two continental plates that are moving TOWARDS each other at a rate of 3cm per year.  This leads to the formation of fold mountains in the north of the Middle East and causes earthquakes

Two prominent climatic regions, Mediterranean and Desert, semi-arid

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population diversified uae= ethnicity

The population of the Middle East is unevenly distributed. 

most densely populated areas=River Nile=>100 people per km²

most sparsely populated area=Arabian Peninsular=<1 people per km²

Reasons for this= climate, access to water, good soil for agriculture

Middle East diversified, one day the oil and gas revenue would be extinct. Meaning that they would have no income, which would impact on both their social and economic future development. Dubai has done this investing in ports, airports, airlines,5 star hotels,theme parks,beaches alongside tourism, Internet City and Media City.

48% of the worlds oil reserves and 43% of the worlds gas reserves are in the Middle East

Middle East is main source trade routes and has led to a very diverse and complicated region.  The region is where Judaism, Christianity and Islam originated from.  Islam is the most practiced religion 70% of the population of Israel are Jewish.

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yemen LIC

population:2/3 of population is under 24 and unemployed (60%) population expected to get 40mil in next 20 years

Gender equality:yemen women are taken out school to marry young or care for relatives causing graduation levelsand attendance to be low with 49% being illiterate.

water:rated 7th water stressed country due to mismanagement in yemens captial so only availble once 4 days for 2mil people.

Tourism:good physical geography however it needs security crisis,tourism infrastructure,and stable secure environment to be safe and attract.

infrastructure:no railways,inaccsesable areas to get to medical care and other services.

imports/exports:most food imported,no products exported,reliant on oil exports

conflict:military and arms spending on money dvision of north and south over oil wealth and water

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reasons for conflict in the middle east

Borders:britain and france created regional borderd between kurds, now five countries, irael plaenstine conflict over jewish homeland

Iraq war:saddam was overthrown leading to shia and sunni conflict greater tension due to sa neign filles with suni and iran and iraq covered with shia muslims

Arab springs:2011 protests in tunisia and eygpt overhtrow govermnet due to unemployment and corruption with rising prices

Religion:conflict between sunni and shia muslim, the iraq war building tension between the two religions sa and iran 2 most powerful countries divded

Oil:the amount of oil in region meant usa and britian interfering this made confict worse and an increase in terrorism around the world

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Global issues


volcanic ash= ash blocks outs suns rays to be stopped cooling the earth

solar output=varies so could affect global climate

orbital varations=the way the earth orbits the sun varies could have effected cc


-burning fossil fuels releasing CO^2

-farming and cattle emmits methane

-deforestation chopping trees cant absorb CO^2+ burning trees release CO^2

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Global issues

Enchaned greenhouse effect:

heat from the sun enters ours atmosphere and some is reflected back into space and some trapped in the energy is trapped is trapped by the greenhouse gases such as CO2. As human activity has produced more of thesegreenhouse gases more heat is trapped.overtime this means that earth has got warmer.

climate change :

-siginficant change in erths climate over time called climate change.

- the quaternary period the last 2.6 million years has seen many galicier eara and periods of interglacier warmer times

-the last galcial period was 15000 years and so since then the earths climate has been warmin up.

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natural hazards

pose risk to people an dprooerty. cause damage injury and death. geoglogical hazards caused by tectonic process.  factors that affect the place is the severity of the damage, ability to cope with the event before and after and the likelihood that the hazard would occur.

scietists can monitor tevtonic activity by seisometers measuring the movemment of the earth  and the escaping  gas it can be predicted as people can evacuate accurate predictions but not always people can evacuate  but some prepare in areas of high risk buildings can be reinforced  with strong foundations and gas and electiristy would have automatic shut off points in the system to prevent fires they can reduce the deaths and injuries by teaching and educating people in the area as what to do in a situation of such high risk.

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earthquakes and volcanic eruptions

The crust is divided into tectonic placte regions, they move because of covection currents in the mantle and they meet at pkate boundries. There are three types of plate margins destructive, constructive and conservative plate boundires .

Destructive- where two plates move towards eachother  the oceanic plate will be destroyed as it gets forced between the continetal plate.

Contructive-where two plates meet and move away from eachother causing the magma to rise and create a new crust.

Conservative - two plates slide along past eachother if they get stuck they jult and pressure builds up causing an earthqauke nor crust is created or destroyed.

Inner core,outer core, mantle , crust

Global distribution- most tectonic activty occurs along  plate margins and on the edge of continets  and some volcanoes form over hotspots on the mantle.

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primary effects vol and earthquakes

primary effects of volcano- people/animals injured and killled 

bulidings, farms and land destroyed 

water supplies contaminated 

volcanic ash prevents air travel

primary effects of earthquakes- building collapses

roads,bridges and railways destroyed

water/gase pipes and electristy cables are destroyed

people injured/killed


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secondary effects vol and earthquakes

secondary of volcanoes-  people are left homeless 

damaged transport routes prevent aid to help 

melting ice can cause flooding

unemployment and negative impact poverty

volcanic ash create fetile land use

tourism can increase

crops can be damaged 

ash contiminates water supplies

secodary effects of earthquake-people left homeless

routes damaged

tsunamis and landslides can be formed

broken gas pipes can be set fire

disease and death of unpure water


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natural hazards

Natural hazards are natural processes which cause damage injury and death.

meterology harzards are caused by the weather and climate affecting ability to cope and likelihood to occour.

global atmospheric circulation- polar air (lp), polar and tropical (hp), tropical and tropical(lp)

tropical storms-7-14days lasting, energy warm sea causes more power, travel west due to easterly winds that blow equator .

eye is area lp (sinking air) 30-300km

eye-wall tall clouds air rises rapidly

storms less powerful towards edge loose energy across cool water or land 

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tropical storm hurricane sandy oct 2012

primary effects- 6700 national guards,80% new yrk schools damaged, killed 41 people, 650000 homes, 59 deaths flooding, 8.5mil lost eletricity

secondary effects- millions left electricity for several weeks, new yrk hospital two days after extensive damage, 87 deaths from health problems,montoring/prediction/warnings improved

immediate response-rescue teams search for survivors, treat injuries, provide food shelter and water, donations of $33 mil,gas was rationed for several weeks

long-term- rebuild/repair damage, restore utilities, promote economic recovery , rehome homeless,$137 repair and restoration

cause- strom desmond 6th dec, 341.4mm rainfall in 24hrs

social and economic effects- thousands of homes/buisnesses flooded, tens of thousands of homes left powerless, one death

enviornmental- sediment transported and deposited ,large areas severly flooded

managment- 50 mil rebuiling scheme

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