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Pure metals and alloys

Ferrous metals- Contain iron

Non Ferrous metal- Dont contain iron

Pure metals

Ferrous                       Non ferrous

Cast Irons                    Aluminium

Steels                          Copper

Mild steel                     Lead

M carbon steel             Tin

High carbon steel         Zinc

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Pure metals and alloys

Metal Alloys

Ferrous                     Non ferrous

Stainless steel          Brass

High speed steel       Bronze

Die steel

Structure of metals

  • Made from crystals

As a metal is worker the crystals fracture becoming smaller and more tightly compact together= makes metal harder- called work hardening

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Pure metals and alloys

Ferrous metals


  • Directly from its ore through the use of a blast furnace, the impurities(****) are removed leaving soft, grey metal, known as 'pig iron' - Not very high quality
  • Generall soft and ductile
  • When carbon is mixed with iron the characteristics are greatly improved- steel
  • The amount of carbon in iron makes different types of steel
  • Each type has different properties of strength and hardness:

- Low carbon steel

-Medium carbon steel

-High carbon steel

-Cast iron

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Pure metals and alloys

Mild steel- Nuts and bolts, washers, car bodies and white goods(panels)

Medium carbon steel- Springs, general gardening tools

High carbon steel- Hand tools, scribers, chisels, plane blades

Cast iron- Machine parts, brake disks, engines

High speed steel- Drill bits

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Pure metals and alloys

Non ferrous- dont contain iron

Examples- aluminium, copper, lead, zinc, tin, silver, gold and platinum

Aluminium is difficult to process and consumes a large amount of energy- makes it a costly process

Copper expensive as crushed a refined to remove all unwanted ores

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Pure metals and alloys


  • Lightweight and has high resistance to corrosion
  • Drinks cans and aluminium foils
  • Excellent conductor of electricity


  • Malleable, good conductor of heat
  • Cables and wires
  • Central heating and water pipes


  • High melting point
  • Jewellery
  • Electronics- sim cards, cable adaptors
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Pure metals and alloys


  • Low melting point
  • Very soft but very heavy
  • Roofing as good resistance to corrosion


  • High melting point
  • Precious metal in jewellery


  • Melting point of 960 degrees
  • Expensive cutlery


  • Rarely used in pure state
  • Food wrapping
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Pure metals and alloys


  • High melting point
  • Good strength to weight ratio
  • Clean material
  • Surgical applications and spectacle frames


  • Coating material
  • Lock mechanisms and small gears
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