Media - Music On TV


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Some Key Concepts to consider

Audience Reception Therorys

Media Synergy (Mutual Dependency)

Cross Media Ownership

Visual Appeal

Artistic Integrity and Independence

Music Genre Channels

Strengths and weaknesses of Television/Radio

Production and Consumption of Music Programmes Broadcasted on UK TV

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Radio As A Medium

- Ear processes information slowly and sometimes gets it wrong

- Radio exists in time - Instant

- Music can signify something beyond itself also just itself.

- Can Build Emotions

- Alone has a unique way of communicating

- Radio gave us 'top 40' chart

- Radio sets music and sound in context and gives them their final meaning

- Appeal of DJs are important to create atmosphere

- Prime times, morning before work.. afternoon/evening after work

- Blind medium, only involves one of the five senses

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TV As A Medium

Two Arguments.

1. Negative force, sapping energy and stifling the imagination

2. Creative stimuli

- Use and gratifications theory, when and why your watching it

- Tv is powerful as eyes are superior to other senses as information recivers (Hearing is 2nd best)

- Visual and aural combined = Formidable impact

- Domestic Medium - "Ordinarious" - part of every day life

- Inattentive viewers - research shown 65% of the time actually watching it properly

- Research also shows 'constant channel switching in rapid bursts' Programmes not often watched all the way through.

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Generic conventions in music programmes

For tv programmes like



- FRESHLY SQUEEZED1. Presenter (s)

Mostly irreverent, relaxed mode of address and possible one male, one female. Presenters often from radio or a music based background/career.

2. Live performance

'Credible' musicians/bands

3. Mimed performance

'Manufactured' bands

4. Title sequence

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Brief history of popular music

- Cyndy laurer was popular, but Madonna pushed her out

- Madonna spent more money on music videos because she understood how important videos were and realised that she didnt need to tour all the time to promote her music. known as 'visual magpie' meaning she knows what will work well.

- She was prepared to be controversal and therefore got more attention from the media.

-The 80's started rap music, MTV never used to play them because they thought it would be a fad that came and went and didnt think the demographic was right.

- Black artists were more or less banned from MTV and rap artists teamed up with pop/rock bands in order to be broadcasted (Eg Run DMC and Aerosmith)

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The history of MTV

1950 - First colour transmission

1975 - Queen video - budget of $3,500, filmed in 3 hours, no high tech equipment, used prisms on a camera lens. Considered the first proper music video

- The beatles started music videos when they were on tour to make up for their absense and to promote themselves still whilst they were touring.

- August 1981 - MTV is launched. The first music video played was 'video killed the radio star' by the bugles.

- MTV used to be scarce, now its available in 300 million homes and in 83 countries.

- When they first started they only had 200 videos so they were relying on success so that production companies would make more

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Top Of The Pops

- Arguebaly one of the most influential music programmes on TV

- Prior to channels like MTV, only place for audiences to see chart acts.

- Remained popular for a long time despite its simple formula

- Often described as an institution

- To appear on the show acts had to have a climbing top twenty single

- Early acts mimed, this was shown explicity.

- Acts knew that publicity from appearing on the show would be invaluable in terms of promotion

- If acts could not appear either a video or dance troupe was used

- Eventually specially shot footage by artists meant that dancers were no longer needed, over reliance on this led to show loosing popularity but the show returened to more live performances.

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Notes taken from 'The online music reveloution' Br

- Purposes of tv:

1.Fulfil Information

2.Provide Entertainment

3.Fulfil emotional needs


Globalisation, audiences are much more fragmented.

Globalised production

Notion of interactivity

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Radio As A Medium 2

- Mcluhan - "Radio is a hot medium", "Tv is a cool medium" - Meaning radio heats up imagination and TV relaxes it.

- Companion medium, company for the individual listener who are annonymous


Active audience because you can respond

-Intimate medium, mode of address is personal, flexible and undemanding.

- Action takes place in the imagination

- There are more radios than people

- Persumed largest audience is young people, but this is untrue.

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Notes taken from 'The online music reveloution' Br

- The biggest music media coglomerates are EMI, Universal, Sony BMG and Warner.

- Biggest intetnet sensation was the arctic monkeys who started on Myspace. (fastest selling british album of all time)

- Rupert Merdock bought myspace for a whopping 350 million pounds.

- Metallica took on Napster (file sharing site) in a legal battle

- Alison Wenham, head of independent music sees napster as a global platform.

- Ipod played a big role in the reveloution and apple blagged record companies to sell music online, bringing in Itunes the online music store. Itunes dominates 80% of the online market.

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The History Of MTV 2

- A lot more money is put into music videos now - choreography and special effects are essential.

- Missy Elliott 'Shes a *****' cost 2 million dollars. 10,000 went on renting the lake!

- Wild thing cost only $350 and was an 'antivideo' which means using a low budget.

- English videos were darker and american are glamerised.

- Fatboy Slim - Praise you. - Antivideo using amateur dancers.

1983 - Michael Jackson released best selling album of all time and beat it was said to be a 'showstopping choreagraphed showdown'

- Raised more money for thriller by making a 'making of' as the album was on its way down because production compaines wouldnt fund it. The record shot back up the charts soley because of the video.

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Brief history of popular music 2

- Blondie showed the first hint of rap (believe it or not!)

- Hype williams - director behind rap artists such as missy elliott and puff daddy.

- There is a lot of borrowing in music vids from films (intertextuality)

- Mutual dependency (rap helped mtv, mtv helped rap)

- Recently the notion of glamour has become important in music videos

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- Multi-Channel, single programme generes, dedicated advertising to attract niche audiences

- Time Slots, Terestrial TV Time zones 7-10pm prime time TV, largest audiences.

- Specialist and small audiences, after 10pm

- Tv shares 6 similarities with dreams:

1. Both highly visual

2. Both highly symbolic

3. Both involve wish fulfillment

4. Both contain disjointed and mismatched material

5. Both are forgotten in the same way

6. Both make sense of recent experience

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TV as a medium 3

- Promotion of good programming

- Liverate programme makers

Commerical TV focus on following

- Diversity

- Consumer soverignity

- Consumer choice

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Generic Conventions 2

PSB (Public service broadcaster) EG BBC focus on following

- Education

- Universal Appeal

- Availability

- Diversity

- Provision for minorities

- Serve public sphere

- Independence

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Generic Conventions 3

10. Evidence of audience

or 'in the round' (Random chats with audience members and inviting entusiastic participation)

11. Programme logo

12. Graphics/titles revealing performer/song information

Eg TOTP2 - 'useless' facts along bottom whilst performance is ongoing

13. Camera shots

sweeping / Close up and ECU (extra close up) / pull focus (loads of extreme close ups on lead singer, key guitar, drum sequence)

14. 30 min/ 60 min duration

15. Interviews with musicians

16. Music videos

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Notes taken from 'The online music reveloution' Br

- Online music threatens dominance of record companies

- Hmv is the biggest music store in europe

- If people grown up never buying music, will they ever?

- The JCB song was released online, barrell marketing

- Internet was an integral part of the success and it meant they didnt need big marketing companies

-Gnarles barkley - crazy, first single to get to number 1 on internet sales alone.

-Reveloution in music industry and way people consume them

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Generic Conventions 2 -1

5. Theme tune

Signifies the overall music content

6. 'Postmodern' feel

Self knowing, irreverent (eg ironic presenter, camera purposefully shows the studio location warts 'n' all and the 'stars' being 'normal' - nothing appears hidden

7. Mise-en-scene

Casual dress, larger than life front person (importance of entertainment) plain, colourered backgrounds to emphasise lighting effects.

8. Lighting in excess

Strobes, mirror balls, (varying coloured lighting refers to change in peformance) makes performance more enjoyable for audience

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Generic Conventions 2 -2

9. Cut rate

Matches the overall tempo of the music

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